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THE ETUDE 





Putting a Chinese Wall Around Your 
Educational Opportunities 

Protest Against an Enormously Increased Tax 
on Your Magazines 

T HE last Congress passed a law, which, if not repealed, may cut off 
your priceless educational opportunities which you have re¬ 
ceived through your magazines 


This law provides for a Postal “zone system” so that in many 
districts of the country the cost of magazine postage will be raised 
from 50 to 900%. 

The publishers already taxed to the limit to meet war 
conditions can not stand this abnormal tax and the burden will 
fall upon the readers of America,—unless you, Mr. Reader, exercise 
your right as an American citizen to protest to your Congressman 
and your Senator and demand the repeal of this unjust law. 

At this time everyone wants to do everything necessary to 
assist the Government in its great work, but at the same time no 
one wants to annihilate one of the most potent factors in the up¬ 
building of America. 

American magazines have had as great a part in the education 
of our citizens of all ages as have the schools and universities. 

They have fostered patriotism, developed art and tortihed 
science, commerce, agriculture—always for the everlasting 
good of the U. S. A. 


To put this enormous tax upon the magazine reading public and 
at the same time so complicate the system of distribution of maga¬ 
zines, that delays are inevitable in a time when deliveries are 
already badly congested, seems suicidal to thousands of people. 

The Postmaster-General through his last report has made clear 
that this enormous tax upon the magazine reader is not a war tax. 
Publishers have already stood a huge tax on excess profits and large 
income taxes. It is a tax on you—a tax on your educational 
privileges. 

Abraham Lincoln fought the Zone system and thought 
that America was freed from it for all time when he abolished it in 
1863. It is far more objectionable now than it was then. 

President Wilson has openly expressed his regret at this dras¬ 
tic legislation. Will you express yours. 


Is it Worth a Three 
Many Dollars 

There is one way and one way only to correct laws that seem 
unjust to you. 

You employ Representatives'and Senators in Washington to 
make laws and to repeal them. They gladly heed the will of their 
constituents. 


■Cent Stamp to Save 
in the Future? 

Don’t imagine that because you are a woman or a minor your 
protest will not count. The representatives are representatives of 
all the people and want to know your pleasure. 

Ask your postmaster or your postman who are the representa¬ 
tives for your district in Congress. Then write to your Repre¬ 
sentatives and to your U. S. Senator something like this. 


“I am emphatically opposed to the Postal Zone System 
which would place prohibitive restrictions upon the educa¬ 
tional and other advantages I receive through magazines. 
Will you, as representative for this district, use your best 
efforts to bring about the immediate repeal of this drastic 
and abnormal bill . 9 ’ 


Send the note now. The law goes into effect July first. 

To-morrow may be too late. Leaving it for “the other fellow to do” may mean that you will have to pay 
the 50% to 900% increased tax. Don’t you think that you are paying enough for things already? Do you think 
that this huge tax should be saddled upon anything so important as your own education. 

Act to-day! It is your right and duty. 


JUNE 1918 


THE ETUDE 


Page 361 


Prepare Now 

FOR NEXT SEASON 

| Order Teaching Material Early 

Abundant Reasons and Convincing Argu¬ 
ments can be Advanced in Favor of this 

Order Early Plan 

But the Average Teacher has come to realize 
the wisdom of ordering next season’s supplies 
well in advance, and therefore to most teach¬ 
ers nothing more than a reminder is necessary 
at this time. 

Ordering Early Imperative 
This Year 

This season there are additional factors that 
make it more vital than ever to the teacher 
to make this step. In spite of the utmost 
promptness in filling orders, the usual rush of 
ear h shipments coupled with war time 
traffic conditions may more or less retard 
their final delivery. 


WRITE NOW AND— 

Let us know the number of pupils expected 
next season. 


State the grades and styles of music desired. 


Give the date the material should reach 
you. 


RESULT— 

We will send a selected supply of material 
on our On Sale terms, all not used being 
returnable at end of next teaching season 
when settlement is made. 


Material will reach you at time desired. 


A prompt start of the season’s work to the 
pupil an<J Satlsfaction of both teacher and 


Ets JHE 0 PRESSERC 0 . esses - 
™vr;' 7 " CHESTNUT ST - KEMF 

music books PHILADELPHIA,PA. K E R S DS AND * 



More Corns than Ever 

But They Do Not Stay ” 

The Story That Millions Tell 

T HIS is not a way to prevent corns. That 
would mean no dainty slippers, no close- 
fitting shoes. And that would be worse 
than corns. 

Our plea is to end corns as soon as they 
appear. Do it in a gentle, scientific way. 

Do it easily, quickly, completely, by apply¬ 
ing a Blue-jay plaster. 

Modern footwear creates more corns 
than ever. But have you noted how few 
people ever evidence a com ? 

The chief reason lies in Blue-jay. It is ending 
millions of corns each month. Instantly, for 
every user, it puts a quietus on corns. 

The procedure is this: Attach a Blue-jay at 
the first sign of a corn, 11 will never pain again. 

Let it remain two days, and the com will disap¬ 
pear. Occasionally, an old, tough corn needs a 
second application. But that’s an easy matter, 
and the corn is sure to go. 

This is the modern method. Old. harsh, 
mussy methods are long out-of-date. Paring, of 
course, is dangerous. 

Here a gently-acting wax is centered on the 
com alone. The corn is protected in the mean¬ 
time, and the wrapping fits like a glove. 

It s the expert way of dealing with a corn, and 
everyone should employAt. 

few r LiJ^lfwU| N knt th th r t* Ulte on a “ in * le “"*• * -!! 

pare olpld them? or”tre»' them'lrfold^time W 

BAUER & BLACK 

Makers of Surgical Dressings, etc. 

Chicago and New York 




_ 


Th ° Se haVinS “ M Co. may We * subscriptions chmged 


THE ETUDE 


Give Your Pupils a Three-Months’ 
Summer Subscription to The ETUDE 

tastf s- - - » 

Summer playing, besides many interes ting articles ^ ^ P ’ eCeS ° f mUsic for 

ANY THREE ISSUES FOR 25 CENTS 

>;• ; ”■*• ° iTS £ 'ofT, uj’.-K'n-ow b ' ■ ’" A f°' to 

ffiS ” * -" PP't of .pwtol three-month,. .ub.c„pd<» mpoa . 


PHILADELPHIA, PA. 


“ EXCELL fu7TAB D LlVC w H / L [UU INSTRUCTtVE, 

ARE REMARKS MADE BY PIANO TEACHERS ABOUT THE COMPOSITIONS OF 

Mrs. A. M. Virgil 

Director of Virgil Pi ano Con.ervetory, New York 

Send 2 ^p^td S S: Catalogue 

™ V,RG,L PIAN0 SCH00L CO., „ Wes, 68th Street, ;Xk City 


Please mention THE ETUDE wh~a<idressing onr advertiserj 







































































































































' "fi?, 77 "-, '-"'J; .7^' 


BRING NEW 


More Pupils Next 
Season 


life to your teaching methods this summer 

“Polish” Your Technic and Repertoire 


Some pupils come to you : 
purely by chance. If you ; 
wait for all of them to come 
by chance you are looking fail¬ 
ure in the face. Business 
Manual for Music Teach¬ 
ers, by G. C. Bender, tells: 

How to Locate Prospective 
Pupils. 

How to Secure Prospective 
Pupils. 

How to “Follow Up” Pros¬ 
pects. 

How to Hold Pupils. 

How to Interest Parents. 

How to Collect Accounts. 

How to Give Pupils'Recitals. 

How to Keep Your Class 
“Alive.” 4 , 

In fact, this very practical \ 
book gives every sensible, dig¬ 
nified means that the active 
teacher can use to get ahead. 

It has helped many, many j 
teachers who were in a rut and 
it will help you. The price is 
$1.00. Send for a copy “On 
Sale.” THE ETUDE also , 
gives innumerable practical \ 
business hints to teachers. But 
of course the subject can only , 
be covered exhaustively in a 
book such as Business Manual 
for Music Teachers. 


Five Definite Summer Plans 
for Action 



Summer is about the only time the teacher has to 
rebuild—to get a fresh start—to make new and better 
plans. Here is a page of help for those who do not know 
just how to take the first steps. 


RESOLVE to start the season next fall playing 

BETTER, TEACHING BETTER, with a larger class of pupils. A 
strong resolve backed up by continued determination often works 


RESOLVE TO POLISH UP YOUR OWN TECHNIC. Be ready to 
surprise your pupils with a new facility in playing Make out a 
daUy technical plan and live up to it. See Exceptional Material 


on this page. 


in EXTEND YOUR OWN REPERTOIRE. Perhaps you have “gone 
stale” and do not know it. Work hard-master a group of new 
nieces and your whole next season will take on a new interest. 
See the list of new and attractive things on this page. 


IV. 


INCREASE YOUR WHOLE RANGE OF TEACHING PIECES. 
Just as the Merchant knows that it is suicidal not to have new 
patterns and new goods to display, the teacher should realize 
that in a community new and fresh teaching material is impera¬ 
tive We knew of one teacher who boasted that she had taught 
Lange’s “Flower Song” twenty-seven times in one season and 
she wondered why she did not get along. 


IMPROVE YOUR BUSINESS METHODS. Most teachers need 
practical advice upon this point. 


THE MUSIC TEACHERS’ BUSINESS MANUAL advertised 
upon this page tells how to go about getting more pupils. 


i I 


Better Methods 
Next Season 

Freshen up your whole out¬ 
look on teaching. Get the ideas 
of others and digest them. 
Here are some books that are 
almost as good as a normal 
course for the ambitious 
teacher. 

The Education of the Music 
Teacher, by Thomas Tapper, 
Price, $1.50. 

Master Lessons in Piano 
Playing, by E. M. Bowman, 
Price, $1.00. 

The Leschetizky Method, by 
Marie Prentner, Price, $1.50. 
This book has a long section 
in text telling what Leschetizky 
used in preparing all his 
pupils. 

Great Pianists on Piano 
Playing, by J. Francis Cooke. 
Conferences on the art with 
most of the foremost Pianists 
of the day, Price, $2.00. 

Descriptive Analyses of 
Pianoforte Works, by E. B. 
Perry, Price, $1.50. 

Stories of Standard Teach¬ 
ing Pieces, by E. B. Perry, 
Price, $1.50. 

How to Play Well Known 
Pianoforte Solos, by C. W 
Wilkinson, Price, $1.50 . 


Works That Will Help You 

Czerny - Liebling 

Czerny-Liebling—three vol¬ 
umes, Price each, 90 cents. The 


cream of Czerny’s Studies care¬ 
fully selected and edited by 
one of Liszt’s best known 
teacher pupils. Daily work 
with a few of these will advance 
your technic surprisingly. 

Increase Your Own Repertoire 

Of course you do not intend to let the 


Philipp’s Works 

Philipp’s “Complete School 
of Technic” (Price, $1.50) and 
The New Gradus Ad Parnas- 
sum, eight volumes, covering 
all special phases of Technic 
(left hand, right hand, hands 
together, double notes, etc. 
Price, each, $1.00.) Map out 
a summer self-study practice 
schedule of immense value. 


Rebuild Your Own Technic 

Mastering the Scales 


Touch and Technic 

Mason’s “Touch and Tech¬ 
nic” follow the advice of Pader¬ 
ewski, Gabrilowitsch, JosefFy, 
Liszt and others who realized 
that this method is one of the 
most distinctive and artistic of 
all. Four volumes. I, Two- 
Finger Exercises; II, Scales; 
III, Arpeggios; IV, Octaves, 
etc. Price, each, $1.00. 


and Arpeggios 


Mastering the Scales and Arpeggios, 
by James Francis Cooke. Price, $1.25. 
Most of the world renowned teachers 
have depended upon Scales and Arpeg¬ 
gios to form the background of technic. 
There is nothing like a good drill in 
them to give new life to sluggish play¬ 
ing. This work covers the entire sub¬ 
ject from A t 


JeethoverTSonata, a Chopin Scherzo or some masterpieces ' to jo^ repertoire, 
mt you will also need some other modern high class pieces to add zest and in- 


but vou will also need some other modern high class pieces to aaa zest anu in¬ 
terest to your playing all ndxt year. Here are some of the best recent^works of 


Extend Your Teaching Material 

Take this annual opportunity to get out of a Pedagogical 
rut Most teachers use the same old teaching stuff because it is 
“too much "trouble” to hunt up new. We have teaching experts 
who do the hunting for you. All you have to do is to give us 
some working idea of how much material you need in each grade. 
Then we send you a package 

opportunity to try each piece and have it right on hand when 
the pupil needs it. Thousands of teachers purchase music 
through this economical, trouble-saving method. You don t 
pay until you have had abundant opportunity to know what you 


A Very Important Moment for All Music leachers) 


all summer ana oiners vn § j 


THEO. PRESSER CO., PHILADELPHIA, PA. 


i 


vt 


JUNE 1918 


THE ETUDE Page 863 




. 



PRESSER’S MUSICAL MAGAZINE 



A MONTHLY JOURNAL I 
MUSIC STUDENT, AND A 

Edited by James Francis Cooke 



The World of Music 





SHliBil 

‘The Lord is K 

























































































































JUNE 1918 



Page 861) THE ETUDE 


Now! <The Final Achievement 

Brunswick introduces a new Method 
of Reproduction, a real sensation 


ERE, at last, is the supreme 
(1U J phonograph achievement of 
V || recent years .... The 
v Brunswick Method of Re¬ 
production. 

It includes two distinctly new im¬ 
provements, two inventions that ab¬ 
solutely revolutionize old stand¬ 
ards. 

Some maker was bound to build 
this ultimate phonograph, freed 
from ancient handicaps. 

The honor has come to The House 
of Brunswick, a pioneer in develop¬ 
ing the all-record idea. The first 
Brunswicks met with phenomenal 
success, showing that we might 
spend thousands of dollars in per¬ 
fecting this idea. 

Better Than Ever 

Now, with the new Brunswick 
Method of Reproduction, distinctly 
new, we offer a super-phonograph. 

It not only plays all records, but 
plays them at their best. 

This is accomplished chiefly by 
The Ultona, our new all-record re¬ 
producer, and the new Brunswick 
Tone Amplifier. 


Tone values are now given a nat¬ 
uralness hitherto unattained. Some 
of the gravest problems in acoustics 
are solved. 

The Ultona is an amazingly sim¬ 
ple contrivance. It plays all records 
according to their exact require¬ 
ments. The proper diaphragm is 
presented to each record, whatever 
make, and the exact needle, the ex¬ 
act weight. 

So you see that this is not a make¬ 
shift, not an attachment, but a dis¬ 
tinctly new creation. 

Simplicity Itself 

At the turn of a hand you adapt 
The Ultona to any type of record. A 
child can do it. It is practically auto¬ 
matic. 

Now your library of records can 
be bought according to your favor¬ 
ites. For instance, each record 
maker has a famous tenor. On a one- 
record instrument you are confined 
to one. Others are barred. And who 
likes to be restricted? Who wants 
to be confined to buying from only 
one catalog, when there are several 
from which to choose? 


The Ultona, we think, is the great¬ 
est feature offered any music-lover. 
And it is obtainable solely on the 
new Brunswick. 

Another vast improvement in tone 
projection comes in our all-wood 
Tone Amplifier, built like a violin. 
All metal construction is avoided, 
thus breaking away from the usual 
custom. 

Wood, and rare wood at that, is the 
only material that gives sound waves their 
proper vibration. 

With The Ultona and the new Brunswick 
Tone Amplifier, phonographic art is brought' 
to higher standards. 

See and Hear 

You cannot afford now to make a choice 
until you’ve heard the latest Brunswick. 
Until you become acquainted with The 
Brunswick Method of Reproduction. Until 
you hear this marvelous instrument. 

You are invited particularly to examine 
The Ultona and note how simply it adapts 
itself to each type of record. 

Once you hear the new Brunswick, you’ll 
be delighted and convinced that this super- 
phonograph is in a class heretofore the ideal, 
but unattained. 

All you want in any phonograph is found 
in this composite type. Plus superiorities 
not found elsewhere. 

A Brunswick dealer will be glad to play 
this super Brunswick for you and explain the 
new Brunswick Method of Reproduction. 


Brunswick Models—Price $32.50 to $1,500 

THE BRUNSWICK-BALKE-COLLENDER COMPANY 


General Offices: Chicago 

Branch Houses in Principal Cities of the United States, Mexico and Canada 


Please mention THE ETUDE when addressing onr advertisers. 



II 


THE ETUDE 


is 


JUNE, 1918 


VOL. XXXVI, No. 6 


Honey or Gall? Which? 

Aeraham Lincoln, our American symbol of common 
""" * nd of.spirit, is reported „ sajing „„ e tNJ- 

I ou may talk to me of discipline , but I 
know that one drop of honey is worth ten 
gallons of gall.” 

f. Pcrha P sone of t,lc reasons why you have not been able to 
get the results you expected in your music teaching is that 
you have been depending upon gall rather than honey. Gall 
breed! embltte ^ mak <* the pupil antagonistic, resentful. It 
bieeds a mean sp.nt and keeps things constantly in a turmoil. 
It produces far more obstacles to success than anything else, 
the most unpleasant message can be conveyed in such a wav 
that the pupil will understand and be benefited, but it will not 
be done by coating it with gall, but by coating it with honey. 
Abraham Lincoln knew. No man ever handled his friends or 

too oirr 1 more success and good sense. If you are not 
too old, too calloused by your prejudices, there is a wonderful 
lesson for you m this. Thy it for awhile and see if you can’t 
make ,t a habit When you see a man accumulating many fine 
business or professional friends, rising from one position of 
prominence to another, you will find that it is by seeing the 

siS r 11 ^^' ^ ^ than th ° WOrst ’ and Elding up his best 
side rather than his worst, that he succeeds 


posers and theorists vary, even in simple matters. Here is an 
example quoted by Grove. It pertains to Hidden Fifths and 
Octaves ; that is, fifths or octaves produced when two parts or 
voices singing together move in similar motion (in the same 
direction) toward a single fifth or octave, to which one of them 
at least, progresses by a leap, as in the following example: 


According to the rules of old-time harmonics, such fifths 
vere prohibited under special conditions. Many cars still find 
the results, where they are used, very “thin,” “empty” and 
weak, particularly in writing for voices. Yet the following 
quotations from three authorities show how authorities disagree 
even upon this very elementary subject: 


not allowed 
allowed 
not allowed 


When Doctors Disagree 

a fl rt ° f r iCal com P° sition and always has been, in 

heeom ri ^i' to codif -Y on some permanent basis 

become ridiculous for their transitoriness. Certain basic prin- 
ples remain, but the human ear refuses to remain static. Like 
all phases of human perception, the degree or quality of per¬ 
ception varies with the individual. P 

Certain individuals have extreme sensitiveness in taste, 
others in smell others in sight, others in touch, and others in 
hearing. The touch of the blind man, the taste of the coffee- 
tester, the color perception of the artist, arc all notable in¬ 
stances This is sometimes extended to cover races and groups 
of people considered geographically. For instance, it is reported 
by some that the Zum Indians have such wonderful sight per- 
ception that they can see the stars in bright daylight. It. is 

llrUnf S'? C ° W ? • rC l e 1 Pti J ° n ° f tHe pe °P le 0f France a " d S01l| c 

parts of Italy Is so highly developed that they are amazed that 
people of other countries do not notice the difference in colors 
which they so readily observe. 

Thus in music many people have wonderful hearing. Mozart 

vas a, notable instance, as was Debussy. Wl}en such a man has 

? j a Certai " Ch ° rd is a £ reeable to Um lie indulges 

in that chord, no matter what others may think about it. His 
strong sense of ego convinces him often, that because he likes 
a chord the rest of mankind should like it also. This unreason¬ 
able attitude has been the doom of many a composer. 

No composer has a right to assert himself through such 
iconoclasm until he has digested the music of the past and under¬ 
stood the art theories of his predecessors. Debussy, Schonberg, 
Grainger and other iconoclasts became wonderful'lv well versed 
in all the great music of the world before attempting to steer 
out into new fields. 

However, it is interesting to observe how different com- 


T~r 






J i i J 


— . . 


Something to Look Forward to 

The coming teaching season (1918-19191 w ;n n 
most significant in the history of our com, v V ^ the 
has music played such a corrigible n irf ; l ^ j r . L T cr be ^ orc 

Menu, M f " r «*• « eon- 

teachiand 11 “ L *' ,C co-operation of all 

States Hill r ocei»e,,eriom”? a . ed “ al ‘"' ,llc United 

prosporit.till P “ plc " **r- 

live teachers will find outTho^T mUS ' C lcS , S ° nS at oncc ’ an<1 the 
in their district FnZ ° S ° PC ° P ' C arc b - v ad vertising 

^ - pnt 


365 






















































































































ft 2 


1 


The Teacher and the New Prosperity 

Literally millions of people in America are now tasting 
the results of a new prosperity about which they had never even 
dreamed. It is grewsome to realize that this prosperity comes 
from the grim business of war, but at the same time the United 
States Government properly recognizes that the manufacture 
of war materials and the stabilization of the economic situation 
here at home is a patriotic service quite as essential in every 
way as that of the men in the trenches, who could not stay 
there for an hour were it not for the labors of those at home. 

A worthy mechanic, who had never received more than 
$15.00 a week, suddenly finds that, owing to the new pros¬ 
perity, he can earn from $30 to $60. At first he and his wife 
resolve to save up for old age, or the proverbial “rainy day.” 
Then at the end of three months of saving he finds himself in the 
possession of a sum that he had previously regarded as a small 
fortune. Why not have a little taste of the life so long denied 
to.him and to his family. Accordingly he buys himself a $65.00 
suit of clothes and his wife a diamond ring. A piano and a 
talking machine move into the parlor, and little Sadie, who had 
longed for music lessons for years, suddenly realizes that dreams 
do sometimes come true. 

Thousands of teachers in America will, of course, benefit 
from this condition, and they can be of direct service to Uncle 
Sam by fostering it as much as possible. Be on the alert for 
an opportunity to help. Don’t despise the man with a chance 
just because he has not been able to get the benefits he for years 
may have aspired to have. Do all you can for him and for his 
family. The result will be that musical education in America 
will receive a new and powerful impetus, and American music 
teachers can have an important part in building now for new 
musical triumphs in our country for the future. Musical talent 
is not a thing of the rich or the poor. It often happens, how¬ 
ever, that those who have longed for opportunity work harder 
when, it comes, and the new prosperity will open the doors of 
musical paradise to thousands. 


study the art without realizing that nnpaticncc lc *^ 
tition, and repetition of wrong notes is waste. Monumental, 
Job-like patience is the remedy. . . . 

Job, because of his avalanche of afflictions seems to be 
a subject for ridicule among those who laugh w ien ie 
fortunate in a play comes to grief. It may be interesting for 
Etude readers to know that “Job” has been produced as a 
n poetic drama in New York with great and serious success. 
'Parts of the “Book of Job” have been given musical setting 
several times, the most notable being the oratorio by Hubei t H. 
Parry, first given in 1837. It was also made into an opeia 
twice during the early part of the last century. 


“Scarcely More Than a Few Notes” 

When Beethoven, one of the most industrious of all com¬ 
posers, was passing on toward the end of his long and glorious 
career, he said, in a letter to his friend, Schott: “1 feel as if I 
had written scarcely more than a few notes.” 

The truly great are always discontented with their accom¬ 
plishments. One of the ways in which to measure a weak per¬ 
sonality, especially in music, is to find whether the individual 
has ever appreciated how little even the greatest of men can do ■ 
in a lifetime. The man who lets himself be deceived into think¬ 
ing he has done much when he has not done a fraction of what 
the really great have done, is one of nature’s crudest jokes. 


St. Job 

Very few musicians know- how near Job came to being the 
patron saint of the art instead of St Cecilia. In 1502 a musical 
society was organized in the fateful city of Louvain, Belgium. 
According to the times, the organizers submitted the statutes 
of the organization to the magistrate. The legal gentleman 
looked over the papers and then came to the decision that St 
Cecilia was the proper Saint. This, it is said, was one of the 
first times when St. Cecilia was connected with the thought of 
music. There is a tradition that an angel was attracted to 
earth by the charms of her singing. Other than this very little 
is known about her, except that she converted her husband and 
his brother to Christianity, that the pagan authorities con¬ 
demned them all to death, and that she was placed in a dry bath¬ 
tub over a fire and was thus tortured until an executioner be¬ 
headed her. 

Just why the mediaeval musicians were wont to select Job 
as their patron saint no one knows, but there was something 
humorously significant in the name as applied to music: Job, 
the apotheosis of patience,—gloriously rewarded by being 
relieved of his troubles, from, boils to loss of his family and 



Singing to Victory 

Did you read the inspiring, sane, convincing letter of 
General Hugh L. Scott in the last issue of The Etude? It 
was the letter of the shrewd, experienced, thinking leader, whose 
years of service in the United States Army have led him to 
understand that victory is as much a matter of morale as of 
muscle. Muscles contain the energy of the body, morale is 
the energy of the soul triumphant. 

When the American Army moved gallantly up to the battle 
line it was a singing army, — an army confident and determined. 
That should be the spirit of all America now, as we are at the 
dawn of the greatest struggle the world has ever known. There 
is no place for the man who falters, who looks down when we 
must look up. No matter how you fight, if you can go at it 
with a song on your lips you will meet your adversary more 
confidently than if you meet him with a heart filled with fears, 
anxieties and timidity. General Scott’s words are historic. 
Read them: 

“Music helps against those insidious influences which break 
an army's enthusiasm. A singing army is a fighting one, not 
because it sings, but because it has the enthusiasm which comes 
from singing .” 


Rudder or Rocks 

There is a peasant proverb of Brittany, where the folk 
live or die by the sea. It runs: 

“He that will not answer to the rudder, must answer to 
the rock.” 

More musical careers come to ignominious endings because 
of lack of steering than for any other reason. The ship of 
Talent, manned by Youth, its sails filled with the breezes of 
Enthusiasm, sets out upon a fair sea toward a glorious goal. 

When it is steered by a strong hand, guided by the voice of 
experience, it may sail on triumphantly through storms, trcach- “ ■ * 
erous currents and dangerous shoals. Alas, in a greater number 
of .cases Talent goes blissfully into Dreamland.—the hands 
drop from the tiller and the ship heads for the ever-waiting 
rocks. 

The very ethereal character of music, the entrancing dis¬ 
tractions from real attention to the big matter of steering 
straight, the social whirl, the tendency to “putter” rather than 
labor, the inability to see straight and clear by reading the 
lives of other successful musicians and using them as charts to 
the harbor of success,—all seem to keep the music student from 
steering along a straight course. It is not nearly so much the 
perilous tempests of fate that lead to the rocks as it is the fact 
that the student never learns from his experienced advisers 
how to steer straight, and if he does learn he permits his hands 
to leave the helm so often that all his efforts fail to bring him 
back to the true course until it is too late. “TOO LATE”; 
that is the inscription on the rocks that have wrecked many a 
musical life. 

“He that will not answer to the rudder, must answer to 
the Rocks." 


JUNE 1918 




THE ETUDE Page 367 





• | 


The Spirit of the Masters 

Third in a Highly Important Series of Conferences with the Eminent Virtuoso 
HAROLD BAUER 

While each one -of these interviews may be read independently, the whole series is of such 

a ll7lre of\hTt»7^ *° intdl ^ nt ™usic lovers as well, that we give 

Jll , • topics covered in each conference. Only those who know Mr. Bauer's sincere and 

4 " * m “* ««“»* *•* **»■ 


Preparing for the Study of Bach, Haydn 
and Mozart. 

If Preparing for the Study of Brahms, Men- 
(. delssohn and Beethoven. 

(Preparing for the Study of Schumann 
(. and Liszt. 

f Chopin and the Modern Masters of the 
( Pianoforte Composition. 


I. April Etude 
II. May Etude 

III. June Etude 

IV. July Etude 

Preparing for the Study of Schumann and Liszt 



“The student, in approaching the works of Schumann, 
must realize first of all this remarkable composer’s ten¬ 
dency to have his music represent some fixed idea or 
mood. This manifests itself quite naturally in his works 
for little folks, the Album for the Young and the 
Kmder.stucke. Children love the pictorial, and when 
Knccht Ruprecht starts in with, the rumbling the child 


mind has little difficulty in picturing the Christmas 
Knight approaching upon his merry visit. And if the 
nhZ 1. mentally review Schumann’s works for the 
piano, he will find that the majority of the works of 
tins composer are imbued with a precise and often 
very vivid idea. One has only to recall in turn such 
tamous works as the Davidsbiindtcr, Carnival Kreis 
Z r '™’J° sch i*S*chwank aus Wien, etc. It would 
seem, that in Schumann s mmd, the image back of the 
music was as constantly present as the music itself. 
His pianoforte works are either descriptive in the rarified 
fr™ ° r j} S c Hey are mUsical P roducti ons emanating 
from meditations upon some subject dear to his heart. 

Schumann’s Pronounced Individuality 

"It therefore behooves the student of Schumann to 
reave nothing undone to study the biography of the 
master, as well as his writings upon music. There is no 
other composer where such a course is more profitable. 
Although Schumann d le d when he was only 46 years of 
age, he was a most voluminous writer of both musk 
and comments upon music. His letters, like those of 
\\agner are a literature in themselves. For instance, in 
the Fantaste in C Major there is a theme repeated with 
almost monotonous insistence through the entire first 
„ mVariably Stops “Pun the dominant 
theme is Composltlon untiI ‘he very end. The 


never resolving, represented something for which Schu¬ 
mann was always hoping but could never attain. It 
was . the /earning of his poetic soul for the life com¬ 
panionship of the one woman whom he knew could be 
Ins associate, friend and wife. Thus the theme goes on 
and on, always aspiring, never resolving, until the very 
heL l T Vement Whcre ’ in a vision of ineffable 
hi fbe in t < S , lth r st °" the common chord, signifv- 
o the spiritual calm to be gained when the strife is 
over. This is the way in which the movement con- 


Haroui Bauer. 

employs in such a work are native to that work. Here 
is the first theme: 


The theme of the slow movement is based upon the 
last notes of group (b) : 




theTa lur t k h be , C " fret iuently criticised because of 
L „ " r ' ° gra sp its poetic significance. It transpires 

through Schumann s letters that the work was written 
at the time when his suit for the hand of Clara Wieck 
was being stupidly combatted by her crusty father The 
ever recurring theme, cut short upon the dominant and 


“Another remarkable thing about the work of Schu¬ 
mann was that despite the unusually sympathetic under¬ 
standing which he showed for the work of other com¬ 
posers, including Chopin, who could not seem to realize 
the great genius of Schumann, his works show an indi¬ 
viduality, style and treatment so distinctive that any 
musician familiar with his style will invariably identify 
a previously unheard piece as the work of Schumann. 
He produced compositions of great variety both in 
form and content, and yet there is always the atmos¬ 
phere of Schumann, something which can be as unfail¬ 
ingly recognized as the perfume of a flower. 

Schumann s tragic close is shown in the tendency of 
h.s works. They take on more and more of the mysrical 
talenT^n* 5 ? appr ° adles the «•«!■ His was a beautiful 
Ind po^verfui “ d SmCere M * “ U,d be ’ both Kearny 

Virtuoso Liszt Versus Composer Liszt 

“Liszt to my mind was one of the very few com- 
fn the eart° saw ln Beethoven what we have discussed 
n the early part of this interview; that is. the organic 
? the T- L,SZt Was inordinately fond 
of Beethoven and made pianoforte transcriptions of all 
of Beethovens Symphonies. Practically all of Liszt’s 
fd r ea at nf C t r P05,tions fro built up according to the 
‘,f a of tbe or Sanic development of the theme. In 
other words Liszt had a plan akin to that of Beethoven 
and employed it. Please do not think that I am refer- 
nng merely to the cut and dried development of a 

Sem H Th reSCn ^ ed by tlle Sonata f orm.—First Theme 
Second Theme. Episode. Working-out Section, etc etc 
Itjssomethmg vastly more integral than that. 

flor instance, upon the examination of his great E 

(1 Zu° ne A" 1 ' 8 that al! ofth* themes grow 
from one ano her. One never finds a geranium grffted 
from an acacia tree, and in Liszt all of the themes he 


Observe how the theme of the scherzo is contained 
within the same group. 

“In the last movement we find this, showing how 
closely knit the whole structure is: 



and the thematic material of the three previous move¬ 
ments is used throughout, the most characteristic ex¬ 
ample being perhaps the extension of the last three 
notes of the principal theme of the lirst movement (a) 
as follows:— 

Wagner and Liszt are often compared. To me, such 
a comparison is useless, because they sought different 
aims. Wagner with his incessant leit motif can become 
very tiresome The idea of labeling every individual in 
he opera with a kind of melodic tag has never appealed 
V,~, e . ma to ° much lil<e Putting tip signs ‘This is 
»° USe x, Th,S ' S , a D ° g ’’ after tIlc manncr of the Eliza- 
hethan Theatre. It seems to me very elementary, easily 
contrived, and more or less of a blot on Wagner’sEs¬ 
cutcheon. Wagner is not great because of the leit 











































































JUNE 


Page 868 THE ETUDE 

motif, but great in spite of it. To my mind the leit 
motif is something that will in time be abandoned as an 
unnecessary triviality. 

“On the other;.hand, Liszt in his symphonic poems, 
notably Tasso, has produced organically constructed 
works of art in which the living theme is developed 
just as human beings develop under the influence of the 
sun, the rain and the snows that fall upon the world. 

“Mendelssohn, Joachim and Liszt should be given 
everlasting credit for compelling the world to realize 
and appreciate the grandeur and nobility of Beethoven's 
genius. Beethoven, when he attempted to escape the 
beautiful but less vigorous chains of Haydn and Mozart, 
was looked upon as a madman by the public. Indeed it 
was not until late in his life that the public commenced 
to show any great liking for some of his earlier works. 


It was much the same with Chopin. His Nocturnes 
were accepted because he followed the popularity cre¬ 
ated by those of Field,—but his greater works were 
often ignored for the trivial compositions by Herz, 
Kalkbrenner and others since forgotten. Liszt, as well 
as Schumann, recognized the genius of Chopin and 
fought valiantly to make the public realize his greatness. 

“The Fantasies and Arrangements of Liszt are for 
the most part in a class by themselves. It is the custom 
to disparage works of this sort, and indeed their showy 
superficiality frequently deserves condemnation. How¬ 
ever, such compositions as the Don Juan and the Rigo- 
letto Fantasias and some of the Liszt arrangements of 
the 'Schubert, Schumann and Chopin songs, are real 
masterpieces for the piano and none but the super¬ 
snob would scorn them. 


Absolute Time 

A Study of the Heart Beat in Relation to Rhythm 

By Oscar Schleif 


Rhythm, in music, seems to have but,one counter¬ 
part in the human body which can be used as a standard 
for absolute time. This is the standard which regu¬ 
lates all our physical actions—the heart beat. Accord¬ 
ing to it we breathe, walk and run, and it is likely that, 
if left to our own impulses, we also regulate our sing¬ 
ing and playing by it. Even in a state of greatest 
quiet the heart is not likely to drop to less than thirty- 
eight beats per minute; we may therefore assume that 
the slowest music cannot be rendered understanding^ 
at less than, say, 4/4 time, nine bars to the minute, 
or for 2/4 time, eighteen bars. Even at this speed it 
is likely to be misunderstood by a younger person or 
any one with an untrained ear, which cannot conceive 
so slow a progression, and therefore automatically sub¬ 
divides the bars. Thus it happens that untrained play¬ 
ers nearly in.dyery instance render 4/4 in 2/4 time, and 
make two bars of, waltz time of every 6/8 time com¬ 
position, instead of accenting each measure in 2/4 
time. This is not unusual even among virtuosi. 

Similar conditions meet us at the extreme of speed. 
The most violent exercise does not usually send the 
heart beating to beyond 120 to the minute, which would 
be thirty bars of 4-4 time, or sixty of 2-4 time. If 
we try to crowd more accents into the minute, it is 
likely that the ear will automatically subordinate them, 


and create 4-4 or 6-4 time, just as it cannot long listen 
to the ticking of a clock without subordinating every 
second beat, that is, creating 2-4 time, this being car¬ 
ried even to the point of apparent syncopation. 

If the young mind cannot grasp very slow time be¬ 
cause of its lack of relationship to a younger and faster 
heart-beat, neither can it grasp the relationship of a 
multitude of subordinate notes to the dominant one at 
the beginning of the bar. A very young child cannot 
count beyond 3 — and most untrained performers cannot 
accent correctly anything except waltz time in its 
simplest form. 

These limitations should warn us against presenting 
more notes in one bar than the musical mind is ready 
to classify and assimilate, and guide us in keeping to 
the simpler forms rather than risk the automatic sub¬ 
dividing which the mind inevitably uses in self-defense 
against an influx of unassimilable matter, and which 
through force of habit leads to a later misinterpreta¬ 
tion of all complex rhythms. 

The influence of the heart beat will also explain why 
we should not expect a rigid time interpretation from 
any one individual performer, or the same time inter¬ 
pretation to-day as to-morrow. The one will be an 
artificial echo of what we or some one else felt at a 
certain time; the other an inspirational expression of 
the moment and a true rendering of individual feeling. 


How Fast and How Slow 


A piece is played allegro, andante, adagio, or what¬ 
ever may be the case, not because the composer has 
arbitrarily marked it so, but because something in its 
structure or inner nature requires it. Bach trusted 
so confidently to the musical perception of the player 
that he deemed it unnecessary to add any directions 
as to tempo, those at present found in his works hav¬ 
ing been added by editors; but since his day it has 
become the universal custom to indicate the tempo by 
the use of conventional terms or metronome marks. 
However, it is a great help to a performer to under¬ 
stand the real underlying principles which govern the 
matter of tempo, and we cannot do better than to 
quote a few very important paragraphs from M. Lussy’s 
excellent work, Musical Expression. 

L “Pieces with rich harmony, full of suspensions, 
anticipations, discords, reiterated notes; or pieces writ¬ 
ten in irregular rhythms, in a low pitch, or in excep¬ 
tionally long notes, demand a slow tempo.” 

2. “Pieces of regular and but slightly varied metrical 
and rhythmical construction, in which the rhythmical 
and metrical accents coincide and the harmony is 
simple, demand a quick tempo. Such pieces demand 
the contrasts produced by f and />, cres, and dim., but 
little or no ralleitjando or accellerando or expressive 
accents. A quick terripo is like a carpenter’s plane, 
which passes over all inequalities and irregularities, 
leveling and carrying everything before it. 

3. “Compositions which have a certain richness of 
harmony and rhythm, and are yet devoid of complica¬ 
tions and irregularities, require a moderate tempo. It 
is evident that the tempo indicated at the beginning 
of a movement does not necessarily rule it from be¬ 
ginning to end. Changes in the rhythmical and har¬ 
monic structure of the phrases must produce a modi¬ 
fication of the speed.” 

Wagner, in his work On Conducting, gives some very 
enlightening hints. (The book is written in a rather 


polemic style, to combat certain errors which were 
common in the conducting of his day, so we merely 
give the gist of his ideas, in brief form.) 

A piece in which the beauty lies in the richness of the 
harmony and the elaborate gracefulness of the melody, 
can scarcely go too slowly, within reasonable limits. 

A piece in which the interest lies in the liveliness of 
rhythm rather than any song-like quality, can scarcely 
go too quickly—the faster the better, in fact. (Such a 
movement Wagner calls a Naive Allegro.) 

A piece which combines liveliness of rhythm with 
song-like quality can best be judged as to tempo by 
actually singing (with the human voice) the principal 
melody. (Such a piece Wagner calls a Sentimental 
Allegro.) 

The acoustic conditions of large halls often compel 
a somewhat slower tempo, for the sake of clearness. 
•Organists who play in great cathedrals, where there 
is more or less of an echo, have especial occasion to 
notice this. Then, too, the instruments provided for 
use in large auditoriums—large organs, full-sized con¬ 
cert-grand pianos (and where a chorus takes part, a 
larger chorus)— have a superior richness of tone, and 
this in itself encourages a slower tempo. On the other 
hand, if one has a voice of light quality and limited 
power, or plays on an instrument of that character, in 
a small hall, more rapid tempos are in order. The 
writer recalls two performances of Massenet’s well- 
known song Elegie, one by a singer with a sweet, clear 
little voice, the other by a singer with a rich sonorous 
voice of great dramatic power, which were almost 
equally effective, owing to the fact that both singers 
were artists enough to choose a tempo adapted to their 
own voices and to the different halls in which they 
sang; the tempo in one case was nearly double what 
it was in the other. This is an extreme example, but 
serves well to illustrate the principle. 


Make Your Summer Count 

By Mae-Aileen Erb 

Why not spend your summer profitably in so far as 
your musical welfare is concerned? If your teacher 
has not given you an outline for vacation study, do not 
"keep up” your practice in aimless fashion by skipping 
from one thing to another, or, as so many are prone to 
do, let the days slip by while you are deciding what 
and how to practice. Instead, have an aim. Xothing 
is achieved without having a goal to urge one on. The 
writer has always found the strengthening and equal¬ 
izing of the hands a fascinating and extremely helpful 
program for summer study. 

Everyone knows that, of the fingers, the fourth and 
fifth are the weak ones; of the hands, the left. Con¬ 
centrate on these “weaknesses” and you may be certain 
that two or three months of such practice will be of 
lasting benefit to you. 

The right hand during this “equalizing” period will 
need the least attention, except for the discipline of the 
fourth and fifth fingers. This may be had by trilling 
exercises. If you are fortunate enough to own a 
Metronome, by all means use it. Trill first in quarter 
notes (one note to a tick, then in eighths, triplets and 
sixteenths, setting the Metronome at 60 and working 
each group up to the highest speed possible before 
going to the next. 

An exercise for the weak fingers which may be used 
hands together as well as hands separately, is played 
with the third, fourth and fifth fingers. Its range is 
two octaves or more, beginning on Middle C and is 
played ascending and descending. Use each key in turn 
and finger as shown below: 

C D E F G, etc 
3 4 5 
3 5 5 

3 4 5, etc. 

Begin this exercise slowly, with the Met. J 60 and 
proceed notch by notch to Met. 160. Then move the 
pendulum back to Met. 60 and play in triplets to the 
highest speed you can attain comfortably. Be careful 
to lift the fingers high and to play decisively, for all 
this helps to strengthen the muscles. 

For the left hand work, review in all keys, the major 
and minor scales and arpeggios. You have discovered, 
no doubt, that scales are more difficult to play backward 
than they are to play forward ; therefor spend most of 
your time on the backward forms, which will necessi¬ 
tate beginning in the treble and descending for the four 
octaves. Use Metronome marks given below: 


J 60.208 



Keep a record of the speed you reach from day to 
day and, when regular lessons commence again, you will 
know just exactly what you have accomplished. The 
above outline, supplemented by studies and pieces for 
the left hand alone will furnish you novel and valuable 
material for summer practice. 


The Art of Simplifying 

By L. E. Morse. 

In the study of any musical instrument, it is impor¬ 
tant that the student learn to simplify the difficult 
passages. While it is preferable to play the music as 
written, there are times when this cannot be done. For 
instance, shows of one night s'ands that give an hour 
rehearsal, which really requires three hours, and others 
which afford no rehearsal at all, it becomes necessary 
to practically read the music at sight. Here’s where 
the art of making it easy comes in. It is far better 
to simplify than to ruin. Rather play half of a run 
correctly than to attempt to play it all and make a mess 
of it. If you make it easy not many in your audience 
will notice it. Spoil something and it will attract atten¬ 
tion of all. Learn to pick out the most important notes 
in a chord and practice playing an octave jjjwer. A 
little concentrated effort in your daily practice will help 
you in the art of simplifying.—From The Dominant. 


JUNE 1918 


THE ETUDE Page 869 


- -■ 




meg 



How to Become a Good Teacher 

By Professor FREDERIC CORDER 

Of the Royal College of Music, London, England 



I am able to look back over forty years of experi¬ 
ence of teaching the arts of music and piano-playing— 
two different subjects, often confused—and I should 
like to relate, without affectation or egotism, the sum 
of my experiences, in the certainty of its proving useful 
to others. It seems to me that the art of teaching is 
quite a modern development. If we may trust any 
writers at all, up to about the year 1850 the early meth¬ 
ods of instruction in all matters—not only music— 
were crude in the extreme, consisting in setting the 
pupil an uncongenial task and leaving it to him to find 
out how it was to be achieved; the master merely scold¬ 
ing or otherwise punishing any failure. Dickens, you 
know, has given us many—of course, humorously ex¬ 
aggerated—portraits of such teachers, from Mrs. Pip- 
chin in Dombey whose system, he says, was not to 
encourage a child’s mind to develop and expand itself 
like a young flower, but to open it by force, like an 
oyster-down to the dull-witted Bradley Headstone and 
the grandiloquent Miss Twinkleton—humbugs all. Such 
figures are, I am glad to think, becoming impossible in 
the present time, when teachers are really trained for 
their vocation, and the day of the clergyman’s orphaned 
daughter, who took to teaching because she was fit for 
nothing else (admirable reason!) and who, in the 
novels at least, did no good whatever to her pupils, 
but wept and fainted, was persecuted by her employer 
or the villain of the book and ended by marrying a 
marquis—the day of this favorite creation of the novel- 
t S ’’ t ever . existed, is now past and over. Teachers, 

LTthZVZT" ? tra n ed f0r their difficult Profession, 
and though this is still not so universally the case in 
music as in other branches of education, we are im 
proving every day. Some of us are still apt to fancy 
that proficiency in playing an instrument, in using one’s 
voice or in composing music necessarily includes the 
ability to instruct others in those arts. There never was 
a greater error. It is only excusable in those ignor^n 
folk who regard lessons in the same light as oaten 
S";;i Wh ° h3Ve ^ learnt anything 


A Horrible Example 

weTe ak d e iS W d" e 356 - 7° 7 hat end my P ersonal ^dies 
were directed does not matter; but I came out into the 

rv° r two at alt V er f d f ° Und myself confront^ 

“J °. aItern atives—teaching or starvation. Resent- 

not end r elng thUS baIked in my ambitions d?d 
an “"congenial task, but I swal- 
hnuT^tithis down and tried tQ do Heavens' 

TOh ,h« b,»L p »" pi ! s r"’ *" d l ”» 1 wS 

With the best efforts to conceal my feelings it was 
mposs,b Ie not to betray them sometimes of a leas 
f°J et he Pupds divine that I was not happy I fool 

smack"SeTfSrTV angel that I did not 
smack their silly heads. It never entered mine that I 

was every bit as incompetent as they. I was firm in 
n*sly Jar tony a ,„ r 

mmm 

Si 

Now up till that time ,t had never occurred to me 


that it was of any use trying to make an unmusical per¬ 
son musical; the thing did not seem possible. The only 
! n , my Wrefchedness was a grim sense of humor, 
which ed me to write savagely sarcastic articles in the 
-, Here are 3 few extracts from one, 
called My Pupil,” which even at this distance of time 
seems rather amusing, especially as it recalls the sting¬ 
ing sense of injury under which it was written. 

My Pupil 

‘She was about fifteen years old, the time when an 
English girl is at her worst in every respect. Formless, 
mannerless, apparently brainless and talentless, the 
only feelmg she could excite was that of commiseration. 

I will call her Miss Smith, partly because that is not 
her real name and partly because, as the American 
humorist observes, it is a name full of poetry and wild 
unearthly music. (Her own music was wild and un¬ 
earthly enough goodness knows, especially when she 
attempted to play Schumann’s Slumber Song with the 
right hand in E natural and the left in E flat and made 
•> Uavcrs and semi-quavers all the same length) 
She had just joined the school, and I at first believed 
venw u SU enng an agony of riiyness which pre- 
f" td an u swer , m g the sim P ,est Question ration¬ 
ally and gave her that vacuous expression with which 
am now, alas! only too painfully familiar. But it 
Shyn , €SS - it was that utter shrivelling 
f r V , e eCt , Wh,ch afflicts ^urig persons, espe- 
mally of the female sex, the moment you try to make 

vaguelf 3 * Ze li Wh , a ‘ they , have hithert0 known 

• 8 y - • • ■ After hearing her play several things 
"TT 3 ,? W T ay and VainIy correctin g some of the 
technic fa M S ’ - 1 PUrSU6d my inves tigations into her 
Lnf M My - ,nqUlry for studies was received with 
stic nic r P 7 e \ nd 3t laSt 3 b00k of short . character- 
stic pieces ofter the style of Heller was produced. The 

ZTJ SCVeraI ° f the first P a g« were missing, and 
lrt g t r-V n i er f" ng pupil the title and composer’s 

- V e ^ r f0Und that she had never 

of ascertaining. I remarked that it must give quite a 
M to know IS 

“ ‘But have you no technical studies, or finger exer¬ 
cises? Cramer? Czerny?’ 

_ think my S ‘ Ster has demy’s studies.’ (All her 
eplies were given in a timid whisper.) 

„ y° u ever play your scales ?’ 

„ Z es (doubtfully) ; ‘sometimes.’ 

Try one now. Say, D major.’ 

A bewildered pause of a few minutes. Then after 
cautiously feeling the keys, which I assured her she 

teou Jedfef d t ^ h0t ’ she climed up and down the 
required scale, leaving out all the C sharps, and getting 
fearfully entangled in the V ’ gettlng 


to her, told her interesting anecdotes, used flattery, 
scolding, praise, irony and ridicule; I might as well 
have tried to interest the Wellington Monument. Her 
eyes gave no sign of intelligence, not a muscle of her 
butier” 10 ^ ; she remained as impassive as a bishop’s 

And so on, and so on. After describing how Miss 
smith at last improved, by the simple process of grow- 
mg up, the article concludes: 

“Do you recognize the original of this portrait, my 
brother professional? Her name is not Miss Smith, it 
is Legion. She !s, in fact, the typical schoolgirl whom 
we all teach in hundreds, and when I think of the enor¬ 
mous amount of time, trouble, labor and worry thus 
absolutely wasted everywhere and everywhen, I can 
only sigh and wish that I had been born a scavenger 
or some such really useful artist, instead of a teacher 
of schoolgirls. The scavenger and the chimney-sweep 
humble though their callings, earn the gratitude of the 
world by removing from it what is objectionable; while 
we musicians, who begin our career with lofty aims 
and aspirations, only inflict on the world what it would 
pupils » rat ^ er w, th°ut—our compositions and our 

The Teacher Handicapped by His Own Unwillingness 

The reader will hardly fail to perceive in the last 

W thC ? enSC ° f perSOnal ann oyance dictat¬ 

ing the whole article. The writer was teaching under 

whie ho° ng,ng V t0 bedoing something else all the 
while, how was it possible then that he should make a 
success of it? I do not say that he taught badly he 

lea a rn CO th S atT° 7 “ d "7 qUite a f °°'- * had to 

learn that devotion to his calling, without which the 

best results cannot be obtained. It is all very well to 

ecdotes" "" * ^ told her -^resting an- 

tbo w'lr'J ' * as well have tried to interest 

7L. WeI, ' ngton monument.” That is not a fair state- 
ment; when experience had taught me how to win a 
verv S a , nd confidence > matters went along 

i y s of ™ y t0 - th,S - The p0rtrait of Miss Smith 
of .resSent; hoTSrem ffs £ 

wflU^So%^: tWelVe y6arS hter ’ Whichrf 

A Grateful Pupil 


leaving out ail the C 
fear 4“ I!y entangled in the fingering, 
fin Tbat „ is . qu l te an elegant scale. You use different 
p, 5 r : o a 1 he , tlme ’ 1 cou]dn ’t do that myself if I tried 

“‘T practiced th e flats—only the sharps.’ 

scale of^ t„ h aC T m S f ° r u But 1 a]ways P ref er the 

do you ' W ° Sta^P •' How “” p 

a mighty pause—‘Five—no, three.’ 

«A° h And which are they?’ 

“liehZ 'f"® pause 7‘ F Sbarp ’ G shar P and A sharp.’ 

in? all m 7 d T S glvin S way; but, summon- 

as^learlv^s T e c Ce ’J expla ! n ® d this complicated matter 
Greek nr r j COuW ’ 1 m,ght as we]1 hav ® spoken in 
Lreelc or Chinese. . . . J felt inclined to tell 1 er 

nes o/teMife ac< J“ reme nt of ignorance the busi- 


She was a harpist—they are seldom up to the averao-e 

SI,, w„ VouVdtf toXS' 

p 

do anything with this one?” Well we fo„L , P ° SS ' bIy 
recognize all inTe^n^cho'rdUut sTe aTtuall^suc° 

;4t,d iZ p, lrT«'l 

letter was better worth having, don’t you think tb 1 

Sr, Sir” ' vok ' d by my ' v “ y iJS £ 

Sympathy the True Secret 

The whole secret of success as a teacher—whetho.’ t 
-a Snln^ b “‘ in r sym P ath y a " d elimination of self 






































JUNE 1918 


Page 870 THE ETUDE 

tion that you can never lean back awhile and think 
your own thoughts 1” 

Can there be teachers of this kind in the present day? 
One has heard incredible (but true) stories of such in 
the past; of Ernst Pauer, who used to read the news¬ 
paper by the fire, only shouting out art occasional re¬ 
proof when the pupil played a very wrong note; of old 
Sir Julius Benedict, who would wake up from a pro¬ 
found slumber and find himself two, or even three, 
lessons farther on than he expected; but surely we have 
got past all that? There is no longer any reverence 
left for the schoolmaster as such, for his cap and gown; 
unless he can prove his quality he will sooh be despised 
as a humbug, and the pupils know what they want and 
see that they get it, as a rule. 

Talent May Be Latent 

The two bugbears of the earnest young teacher are 
lack of talent in his pupils and lack of industry. The 
former, I assure him, is very often more apparent than 
real. Ignorance always seems like stupidity, but it is 
a great mistake to confound the two. You probably 
cannot recall your own bewilderment of mind when 
you were first learning music, but at least you can re¬ 
member what a helpless idiot you felt when you first 
tried to ride a bicycle. 1 ask you to recall that para¬ 
lyzed sensation of clinging to the handle-bars for dear 
life when you try to teach a beginner, and you will 
then realize how our nerves rebel when our muscles 
and limbs are asked to exercise themselves in any un¬ 
wonted manner. If you can bear this in mind, you will 
at least pity and sympathize with the awkward attempts 
of the unskillful learner instead of losing patience. 
This latter is quite fatal to any progress, besides being 
silly and a confession of weakness. 

Another thing to bear in mind is that talent is not 
always immediately manifest. It is useless to define 
talent as a natural liking for or inclination towards a 
subject. You cannot really like a thing until you have 
had some experience of it. Make the approaches to 
music as inviting as possible—minimize the drudgery 
of the early stages—and you will at least give oppor¬ 
tunity for a liking to declare itself. But in truth talent 
consists chiefly in noticing and remembering. We 
ignore ninety per cent of the things presented to our 
senses and only notice what we choose to. As to mem¬ 
ory, this is entirely a matter of will; if we find it 
necessary to our welfare, we can remember anything. 
One of my schoolmasters had a favorite retort when 
a shirker had “forgotten” to bring his exercise. “Did 
you ever forget to put on your waistcoat?” he would 
ask. "Why not?” And no answer was ever attempted. 
There is far less in the conventional idea of “talent” 
and "gifts” than is generally supposed. It is a nice, 
lazy theory that you either have or haven’t them; but 
while the amateur devoutly cherishes it, the experienced 
professional scoffs. 

Every Pupil a Fresh Problem 

Still, there is no getting away from the fact that most 
of our first pupils will be terribly bad. But set against 
this the fact that your first lessons will be equally bad, 
for whatever theorists may say, you cannot learn how to 
teach except by experience, and even then every fresh 
pupil is, in some respects, a fresh problem to solve. 
That problem is represented by the word Individuality, 
and will usually involve the second of the two bug¬ 
bears mentioned above. “How shall I get this girl in¬ 
terested in learning to play ?” That is the one question 
the teacher has to be perpetually seeking for new 
methods of answering. It is no use to generalize and 
say that the average girl is unmusical, a born slacker, 
or anything like that. There is no such thing as an 
average person; pupils are all different—completely and 
entirely different. With many it will be sufficient to 
realize that the teacher is really interested in their 
progress for them to become so too; the spirit of imi¬ 
tation is strong. With others it will be needful to play 
on the foibles of envy and jealousy, mentioning (casu¬ 
ally and with great tact) the superior progress of other 
pupils—especially their superior industry, for the spirit 
of emulation is stronger. Above all, the greatest ex¬ 
perience is required to know when and whom to scold, 
when all other methods fail. As a rule, the teacher 
who rates his pupils perpetually, disgusts and discour¬ 
ages them, and there are a hundred more efficacious 
ways of improving an apparently hopeless slacker than 
by getting angry. My own teacher, Isidor Seiss, used 
to make his own life and that of his pupils quite mis¬ 
erable by his ungovernable temper, which did no good 
—for we were all earnest professional pupils— and only 
wore him to the grave. Avoid scolding as far as pos¬ 
sible, and show your disappointment at idleness as 


delicately as the particular case will allow, for the 
spirit of wanting to be liked is, in most young people, 
the strongest spirit of all. 

Do not forget, either, to criticise your own work per¬ 
petually, and compare it, in a spirit of open-mindedness, 
with that of other teachers. Beware of shibboleths and 
“methods.” When a mother comes to me and insists 
upon her daughter being taught on the “Deppe,” or 
"Madame Schumann,” or this, that and the other 
method, I always protest that I have never used any 
other, and then proceed to teach just in my own way. 
They never have the least idea of what any of these 
patent “methods” are, and provided you give goods 
results, no one will challenge yours. 

Finally and in conclusion, my brethren, be prepared 
for plenty of failure and disappointment, all of which 
you must resolutely put behind you and forget. Your 
pet pupil, for whom you have done most, may prove 
ungrateful and leave you for the superior attraction 
of a foreigner with a great name; your best school may 
burst up, owing you money you can ill-afford to lose;. 
all sorts of unpleasant incidents are likely to occur— 
but so they are in any walk of life. On the other hand, 
if you do your work sincerely and well you will in¬ 
evitably encounter, now and again, some friendly soul, 
some kindred spirit, that will abide with yours, even 
after actual separation. Teacher and pupil will become 
life-friends—whether together or apart matters little — 
and existence will change from dull grey to the beauty 
of the rainbow. I do not hold out this prospect as a 
sugar-plum reward for being good; I merely, mention 
it as a reasonable prospect of the results of unselfish 
labor. You need some such incentive, for I believe no 
one ever found teaching a very attractive pursuit at 
first — so long as they were raw and inexperienced, I 
mean. You often hear of the “born teacher,” but I 
don’t believe in there being a born anything, except a 
born fool, and we are mostly that. But when you have 
really learned your job, whatever it is, you ought not 
to want to exchange places with any king or president 
that lives. 


Why Bach? 

By Wilbur Follett Unger 

Isn’t it odd,—or is there perhaps some psychological 
reason back of it?—that of all the great composers, 
the one preeminent master whose music gives true 
delight to every real musician who listens to or plays 
it, and at the same time arouses the ire and disgust of 
almost all laymen who are forced to listen to it, is— 
Bach! 

Let us see if there is anything to this odd condition 
of musical appreciation. Let us see if the mass of 
people who show such distaste for the grand old Cantor 
of Leipsic are justified, or whether the learned musician 
is right and the public taste should be moulded. 

If you were ailing in some part of your physical 
anatomy and your physician prescribed certain bodily 
exercises that would positively benefit you, you were 
assuredly foolish to declare a distaste for those ex¬ 
ercises ! If you are a piano student, you will find in 
Bach’s music a certain discipline to the fingers which 
will positively eradicate any carelessness that you may 
have previously been addicted to. 

If you had been reading trashy literature and were 
recommended a course of higher reading by some 
scholar, would it not manifestly be silly for you to 
exclaim that you have no taste for such dry reading! 
Rather ought you not cultivate a taste for it, since time 
and greater authorities than you have proven the worth 
of this higher literature? 

Well, then, Bach stands in music as Shakespeare, for 
example, stands in literature. 

Bach’s music is pure, solid, absolute. If in playing or 
listening to Bach’s music, nothing else be accomplished 
other than having made you think, then that alone 
makes it worth while. 

The study of Bach makes the student appreciate the 
value of different melodies or voices sounding simul¬ 
taneously, each of them independent of the others. He 
enlarges your scope for reading, memorizing and con¬ 
centration. He forces you to be certain of your 
fingering, if you have never done this before, and 
trains both hands equally, giving independence of hands 
and fingers—a highly desirable attribute in piano- or 
organ-playing. 

I f the layman does not happen to be a music pupil at 
all, let him at least not scoff at Bach, but rather respect 
his music as an unknown quantity (to him) which 
great musicians of all times have revered and lauded. 

If you are .a piano pupil who yet has not acquired a 


love for Bach, and all of the foregomg means nothmg 
o you! listen to what some of the greatest masters of 
music and others have to say regardmg the most re¬ 
spected and best beloved of all composers. 

ROBERT SCHUMANN: “ Practice mdustnously 
the fugues of good masters, above all those of John 
Sebastian Bach. Make the Wei Tempered Clavichord 
your daily hread. Then you w.ll surely be a thorough 


but one Bach.” 

GOETHE: “To me it is with Bach as if the eternal 
harmonies discoursed with one another. ’ 

ALBERT LAVIGNAC : “One of the greatest musi¬ 
cal genuises of the world.” 

GUSTAV KOBBE: “Even the most advanced work 
of a Wagner or Strauss is neither as complicated nor 
as elaborate as a fugue by that past master of Ins art. 
John Sebastian Bach, who, although he was horn in 
1685 and did not live beyond the middle of the follow¬ 
ing century, was so far ahead of his age that not even 
to this day has he fully come into his own.” 

FANNIE BLOOMFIELD-ZEISLER : “I have long 
felt that the mental technic that the study of Bach’s 
Inventions and Fugues afford could not be supplied by 
any other means. ... It may take some time to 
create a taste for Bach, but the teacher will be rewarded 
with results so substantial and permanent that all the 
trouble and time will seem well worth while. There is 
also a refining influence about which I would like to 
speak. The practice of Bach seems to fairly grind off 
the rough edges, and instead of a raw, bungling technic, 
the student acquires a kind of finish from the study of 
the old master of Eisenach that nothing else can give.” 

FERRUCCIO BUSONI : “In the study of the sub¬ 
ject of accentuation and phrasing it would not be pos¬ 
sible for anyone to recommend anything more instruc¬ 
tive than the work of Johann Sebastian Bach. The 
immortal Thiiringian composer was the master-weaver 
of all. His tapestries have never been equalled in 
refinement, color, breadth and general beauty. Why is 
Bach so valuable for the student ? This is an easy ques¬ 
tion to answer. It is because his works are so con- 
tructed that they compel one to study these details.” 

TERESA CARRENO: “Most musicians would say 
that Bach was the one great stone upon which our 
higher technical structure must firmlv stand.” 

ALEXANDER McARTHUR: “The Bach Inven¬ 
tions are in piano playing what the fifth proposition in 
Euclid is to students.” 

WILLIAM MASON . “At the present day, assidu¬ 
ous practice of the Bach Inventions will be of the 
utmost utility to each and every talented student of 
pianoforte playing who wishes to rise above mediocrity, 
as regards developing his fingers and his musical taste. 
For in none of the recent, easier piano-pieces does the 
left hand part contain such an independent treatment 
of the theme as in these Inventions. 

[Editor's Note.—W hile the statements in the above article 
are in every respect true, vet we have a feel in- that 
purely technical value of Bach's music has been emphasi 
to the neglect of its emotional content. In the emptoym 
of the polyphonic style, Bach was not peculiar—he i 
in what - - • • * - - - 




s of his own day. The thin* that gives liim lasting 
eiaim to greatness is his power of noble expression of the 
whole gamut of human emotion, ranging from the prim 
gayety of his Gavottes, Bournes and Qiyues, to the tragic 
grandeur of the choruses in The Passion Accordina to Saint 
Matthew , the exultant joy in the Christmas Oratorio, or the 
lovely tenderness of My Heart Ever Faithful , from the Whit- 
suntuie Cantata. Excellent as the Intention# are, as exer¬ 
cises — and it was avowedly for this purpose they were writ- 
ten—we have often felt it to be unfortunate that a pupil's 
first idea of Bach should be gleaned from so unattractive 
a held. The teacher should take pains to search out and 
play for the pupil some of Bach's more inspiring and inter¬ 
esting numbers, in order to give the pupil a juster idea of 
Bach than he can obtain from his own early practice.] 


Coining New Words 

We have observed on many programs, and even in 
some of the “copy” which comes to us from contrib¬ 
utors. a curious attempt to coin a quite unnecessary 
word, pianiste. to distinguish one of the gentler sex who 
plays the piano. There is no such word recognized in 
standard English dictionaries, and if one imagines that 
it is a French word, we would call their attention to the 
fact that this word is used in French to signify a person 
who plays the piano, without regard to sex. 

The same thing may be said in regard to violiniste. 
There is no such word either in English or French 
dictionaries. The French word is violonistc, which is 
usually masculine, but the same word is used for a lady 
player, with no change of spelling, if occasion requires. 

It is best to stick to familiar and well-understood 
English words, as -far as possible. An ignorant and 
incorrect use of forms borrowed from a foreign 
language is a barbarism. 


JUNE 1918 


THE ETUDE 


Page 371 



The Great Lakes' Naval Training Station Band was organized by Lieut. John Philip Sousa at the beginning of our war and has been instrumental in raising 
immense sums of money and large numbers of recruits. Incidentally Lieut. Sousa gave up a very large income for a slender salary in order to serve the Stars 

e of the largest bands ever organized for continued service. The ages of the men are mostly from 18 to 21. 


and Stripes. The band numbers over 250 men. 


Let’s Have More Music Than Ever 

The United States Government Recognizes a Great Need 


It is with the deepest gratification that we note the 
strong support being given to music at this time, when 
it plays so great a part in the “Cheer Up” and “Carry 
On” policies of the nation. If ever musicians and 
music teachers had a mission that mission is right now 
and here. American musicians are coming to the 
front magnificently. Those who have not actually 
enlisted in the military service as have Felix Schell- 
ing, Francis MacMillan, Albert Spaulding, Percy 
Grainger (Mr. Grainger has taken out naturalization 
papers as an American) and many others are doing 
all they can to keep America keyed up to its great and 
glorious task of the present. 

Music teachers, this is your great opportunity. No 
longer can people say that your part is an insignificant 
one. Music is inspiring our troops leaving for the 
battle line, music is consoling those who are waiting 
in anguish at home, music is firing thousands of young 
men with the zeal to enlist, music is helping to sell 
millions of dollars' worth of Liberty Bonds, Saving 
Stamps, etc. Music is helping the Red Cross, the 
Y, M. C. A., the Knights of Columbus, the Young 
Men's Hebrew Association, the Emergency aid. It 
is finding a place everywhere and is helping the new 
world to keep its head above the thunders of war, 
and able to maintain its unheard-of activity and its 
nobility as a nation fighting for high ideals and prin¬ 
ciples. 

The world has suddenly awakened 
to the fact that even in the times 
of greatest stress we cannot do 
without music. In fact, one of the 
branches of the Government serv¬ 
ice has circulated a statement that 
wholesome, rational recreation is not 
to be regarded as a luxury but as a 
necessity, especially in war time. 

Indeed, the United States Govern¬ 
ment, through the Department of 
Public Information, has recognized 
that Music is a great factor in pro¬ 
moting optimism, patriotism and 
confidence in this hour of national 
strain. 

The part played by famous Ameri¬ 
can musicians in playing for sol¬ 
diers at our camps has done much 
to keep them mentally capable for 
the big tasks they have had to meet. 

The following is simply one letter of 
appreciation sent by Colonel C. P. 

Franklin, of Camp Crane, to Mr. 

Rudolf Ganz, after his voluntary 
recital at the camp. 

“The commanding officer desires 
me to express to you his great ap¬ 
preciation of your courtesy in com¬ 
ing to entertain the men of our 
camp. Work such as yours, by men . 
such as you, is the finest way of 
doing one’s bit, and you may rest as¬ 
sured of the appreciation in this 
camp of everyone for your courtesy. 

We trust that your recollection of 
the event will be as pleasant as 


mentality of our boys. We must realize that the 
great new army includes thousands and thousands of 
men who have been accustom d to the best in art and 
intellectual life. To have the mental exercise and re¬ 
freshment to which they have been accustomed sud¬ 
denly withdrawn would prove anything but beneficial. 

Wise Government Recognition 

The newspapers of the United States recently re¬ 
ceived from the Department of Public Information 
the following quotation from The Etude, which first 
appeared in an editorial in this publication. Its repub¬ 
lication in any paper would, of course, benefit any 
one professionally or industrially connected with music, 
but that is not the point; the musicians of America 
and those connected with the musical industries stand 
ready to meet any readjustment which might be nec¬ 
essary in helping to win the war, but it would be dif¬ 
ficult to conceive of any other way in which they could 
minister to a public need n ore forcefully than through 
their present work in music. 

The following is the quotation from the Etude 
editorial, circulated through Government channels to 
other publications. All material of this kind per¬ 
taining to the present situation may be republished, 
with or without cred't to the Etude. It is a public 
work in which the Etude is proud to participate, 
.as American Music should receive immense benefits 
from it: 


Mr. G'anz is only one of the men 
and women among American musi¬ 
cians who have gone from camp to 
camp, keeping up the spirits and 


Rupert Hughes on “Music as a War Need’ 

To The Etude.- 
“Paderewski told me the other 
night that although Germany 
forbids the Poles to sing their 
National Anthem in times of 
peace, when she sends them 
into battle, she orders them 
to play it that it may fill 
their hearts with fire. 

There is nothing that helps 
the troops across the miles 
like music, nothing that cheers 
or solaces them more in camp, 
nothing that more vividly ex¬ 
presses glory and the rapture 
of sacrifice and in expressing 
it rekindles it.” 

Rupert Hughes 


CAPTAIN RUPERT HUGHES, U. S. INFANTRY 

Rupert Hughes was born at Lancaster. Mo., January 31st, 1872. He was educated at 
rr x j . . Tn his g^jy ]ife hg was yerJ . areat j v i ntere9tm j mus i c , d;,; 

Affairs of Great Musician 

, ; “ wtiuyoum. ureai success as a dramatist, novelist and 

idured Mr. Hughes to turn from the musical field. Mr. Hughes is now a Captain in th. 


. For many years he has been interested in military affairs. 



"In order to win our great war some people have 
thought it would be necessary to discountenance 
certain so-called ‘non-essentials.' Frequently the first 
named is music. 

“This has been the exact contrary to the experience 
of all the warring nations of Europe who during three 
years of torrents of fire, steel and blood have found 
that music zrnis one of the things which have kept 
the men at the front and the people at home capable 
of enduring the greatest strain human beings have 
ever been expected to bear. 

“Great Britain is now reported to be spending large 
sums of money to bring back her musicians, speakers 
and actors to help preserve the public equilibrium at 
home. 

"Without relaxation, amusement, music and mind- 
rest civilization ' will turn to utter barbarity, and the 
hope of sane and permanent peace will be lose. 

“Our nation is making elaborate provisions for the 
amusement of the soldiers at the front. We who 
must stay at home must depend upon music, reading, 
lectures and the theatre to keep our spirits at the top¬ 
most point to bear any ordeal that may come to us." 

Etude readers are invited to read the May issue 
of this journal with care and pass on the inspiration 
contained in the very unusual opinions sent to The 
Etude by Lyman Abbott, General Hugh L. Scott, 
Lieut. John Philip Sousa, Owen Wister, Hon. Henry 
Van Dyke, Ida Tarbell, Dr. Anna 
H. Shaw, Rabbi Krauskopf, Mon¬ 
signor Henry, Rev. David M. Steele, 
Macklyn Arbuckle, Thomas Edison 
and many others. In this issue we 
are presenting a letter from Cap¬ 
tain Rupert Hughes, again empha¬ 
sizing this important point. 

The American Federation of Mu¬ 
sicians, affiliated with the American 
Federation of Labor, has been do¬ 
ing its part in promoting work con¬ 
nected with the war. Mr. Owen 
Miller, Secretary of the organiza¬ 
tion, in a recent letter to The Etude, 
says, in part: 

“Music is the twin sister of civil¬ 
ization. Without music civilizatioiff' 
would be unbearable. At this timd^ 
when the world seems to be revert-^ 
ing to barbarism through the fright¬ 
ful, brutal war, it seems out of the 
question that any one could con¬ 
sider music as other than an es¬ 
sential. 

“Great soldiers have recognized 
the value of music in connection 
with the work of the army. On the 
march the troops are inspired by the 
music of their hands. They seem 
to be able to stand far more fatigue 
with the music of the bands than 
they can stand without them.. In 
the camps the greatest pleasure of 
the soldiers are the concerts and 
other entertainments given with the 
assistance of music. At home, far 
from the battlefields, where anxious 
mothers, fathers, brothers, sisters and 
sweethearts are scanning the casualty 
lists every day, the sweet consolation 
of music is of the utmost benefit.” 


United States 








































JUNE 1918 


Page 872 THE ETUDE 

A Toy Drum and a Tin Whistle 

Mr. Owen Wxster, the famous American novelist 
(and himself a musician of ability) in a letter given 
out by the Department of Training Camp Activities 

“Music is as necessary to the soldier’s heart as bread 
is to his body. Music is often spoken of as a luxury, but 
tt is not a luxury, even in times of peace. 

“It is probable that no battle was ever won by soldiers 
who did not sing. When soldiers have been too ex¬ 
hausted to sing, just listening to music has put new life 
into them. Just such a case as I have in mind occurred 
during the retreat of the British before Mons in 1914. 

“The heavy fighting they had been through had 
proved too much for a certain con¬ 
tingent of troops. The men lay on 
the ground played out, indifferent and 
benumbed. •The enemy zvas coming, 
but the men were too tired to care. 

Their commanding officer looked at 
them in despair. Commands and en¬ 
treaties to march on were of no 
avail; the men refused to budge. 

"Near at hand zvas a toy shop 
which had been abandoned by the 
proprietor .when the retreat began. 

The officer made for the shop, and 
a moment later appeared with a toy 
drum and a tin whistle. Then, while 
he played the drum, two soldiers took 
turns playing the whistle. The music 
from the drum and the whistle awak¬ 
ened the benumbed men, stiffened 
their legs and spirits to further ef¬ 
fort and they arose and inarched ten 
miles to safety. 

“That is what music did in one 
case. In the mediceval age the Ro¬ 
mans and Creeks had their battle 
songs, and even now our warriors 
sing in battle. It has helped to win 
many a victory. Indeed, music lias 
played a brilliant part in the history 
of all great wars." 

It should be the labor of love of 
every American musician at this time 
to endeavor to work with the other 
musicians of the community in plan¬ 
ning meetings of a character to in¬ 
spire patriotism — meetings where 
music is combined with statements 
of principles pertaining to the pres¬ 
ent world crisis. Such meetings are 
of great value in waking an all too 
lethargic public. Americans have 
such confidence in themselves that 
they are very prone to procrastinate. 

‘‘If we don’t do it to-day, we can do it to-morrow” has 
lost many a battle. Music serves to help in focusing pub¬ 
lic opinion at public meetings where this is desired. It 
is said on good authority that at big meetings in Chi¬ 
cago toward the end of the second Liberty Loan the 
famous Great Lakes Naval Reserve Band, under Lieut. 
John Philip Sousa, actually boosted the subscriptions 
up by the million. That is, at a great public 
meeting where subscriptions were being taken, the 
subscriptions would go up by leaps and bounds after 
that splendid group of 350 young Americans fairly 
rocked the building with the powerful and beau¬ 
tiful music of the band. At a patriotic meeting 
held in Philadelphia last fall Louise Homer and 
Henri Scott, backed by a chorus of 10,000 school chil¬ 
dren, accompanied by bands and artillery supplanting 
drums drew a crowd of 150,000 to a great open-air 
meeting in the park. The result was that the meeting 
was shown in print and in moving pictures to millions 
of people in all parts of the country, and it did much 
to stir others to realize the needs of the hour. America 
will need continual stimulation and to realize the im¬ 
portance of universal activity in working for a com¬ 
mon cause. It will also need music to afford relaxation 
from the burdens which to-morrow are certain to 
bring us. Musicians should not let a moment be 
wasted. 

Meanwhile we shall all need more music in our 
homes, all we can possibly get. Keep the young folks 
busier than ever at the keyboard. Lead them to know 
that the more music they make in the home the more 
interesting and more cheerful the home will be. Select 
bright, pretty, inspiring pieces. Avoid dirges and 
funeral marches. Try to get pupils to plan musical 


evenings, when the whole family may get around the 
piano and sing favorite songs. All this will help im¬ 
mensely to keep up the national spirits, and father 
and mother will take a new and brighter interest in 
life. 

LET’S HAVE MORE MUSIC THAN EVER. 

The nation is' watching its musicians now. What 
they contribute toward the common weal of mankind 
will redound to their credit. This is an hour of giving 
for the sake of humanity and humanity’s battle. Let 
it not be said that the musicians of America did not 
give to the limit of their time and means. 

LET’S HAVE MORE MUSIC THAN EVER 


Hon. Samuel Gompers on Music in Wartime 


To The Etude.- 

“In this war we are utilizing more 
intelligently than ever before the 
need and -power of music. The war 
has stirred the very depths of life — 
through music we find relief in ex¬ 
pressing emotions otherwise inartic¬ 
ulate. Harmony of word and tone 
somehow draw us more closely 
together for the common ordeal. 
“Music, whether for those serving at 
home or on the firing line, brings 
comfort and inspiration—it lifts the 
spirit above the barbarity of the fight 
and the materialism of the work into 
things of the spirit—the meaning 
of the struggle. MUSIC WILL 
SOOTHE AND HEARTEN US 
FOR THE FIGHT THAT 
MUST BE WON—IT WILL 
HELP US ON TO VICTORY.” 


SAMUEL GOMPERS 

Gompers was born in London, England, January 27th, 1850. 
en devoted to bettermg labor conditions throughout the wort 
ederation of Labor and with the exception of one year has b< 
1 has repeatedly declined to accept high salaried —■' 
the best -- ----- -■ 



millions 


lility. 


The fact that the Federati 


“Ragging” Good Music 

By Edward Baxter Perry 

It is no uncommon thing in these days of rampant 
frivolity and seemingly almost universal imbecility, 
to hear in hotels and other places of public gathering 
not only a continuous series of the trashiest ragtime 
pieces played on a mechanical piano, or even by a 
so-called orchestra, which are a deliberate insult to 
all intelligent persons present, but even well-known 
good compositions by recognized composers of high 
standing perverted and distorted out of all semblance 
to the original works and vulgarized beyond the power 
of language to express by being changed and twisted 
into cheap ragtime rhythms. 

Only lately I heard in the dining room of a first- 
class hotel in a large city the Traumcrei by Schumann 
and a few other equally exquisite and well-known 
gems played in ragtime throughout by an orchestra 
composed of fairy good executants, which might have 
been good if it had confined itself to legitimate work 
instead of attempting to cater to the present ragtime 
mania. If the distance between us had not been so 
great I certainly should have thrQwn my dishes, with 
their contents, at the head of the director. But I was 
afraid to trust my aim. 

If musicians, so-called, will insist on prostituting 
their art, whatever talent they may possess, there is 
plenty of cheap stuff they might give without desecrat¬ 
ing the works of the masters. I have heard that there 
were in New York surgeons who advertised to oper¬ 
ate for the ragtime mania, and I should be willing to 
contribute something to encourage such an attempt. 


But I doubt if they could find within the skulls of such 
musicians or their voluntary listeners sufficient brains 
on which to operate. . . 

Ragtime is syncopation gone mad, and its victims, m 
my opinion, can only be treated successfully like the 
dog with rabies, namely, with a dose of lead. Whether 
it is simply' a passing phase of our decadent art cul¬ 
ture or an infectious disease which has come to stay, 
like la grippe and leprosy, time alone can show. But 
so long as the general public insists upon hearing it 
I regret to say there will be plenty of musicians, again 
so-called, who will be quite ready to furnish it at so 
much per night. What they do with their self-respect, 
if they ever had any, in the meantime is a problem 
for the psychologist to wrestle with, but which is wholly 
beyond my power to solve. 

We have Musical Unions in many 
of our cities, and one of the first 
rules they should pass is that any 
member found guilty of what is 
called “ragging'’ a classic should be 
dismissed from the organization in 
disgrace, and never again permitted 
to appear in any reputable organi¬ 
zation. I knew of one string quar¬ 
tet from Chicago who had two of 
their dates in Kansas cancelled last 
season because they flatly refused to 
play ragtime stuff on their program. 
All honor to them 1 
Unfortunately, the bureaus and 
lyceum managements realize the 
trend of public taste, and cater to 
it, instead of attempting to elevate 
it. With them it is purely a busi¬ 
ness proposition. They engage by 
the season the attractions which they 
can get for the least money and sell 
for the most, because they are what 
are known as "Box Office Proposi¬ 
tions.” It is a fight to the death 
between the bureaus, on one side, 
and the real artists and would-be 
educators on the other. And at pres¬ 
ent the tide is running strongly in 
favor of the bureaus. Unless the 
local managements of lyceum 
courses take a firm and decided 
stand in the matter and find some 
way to work together there will 
soon he no artists at all worthy 
of the name, only bureaus and the 
players of Good Gravy Rag, whom 
they send out and foist upon the 
helpless public. And then what be¬ 
comes'of good music, with its edu¬ 
cational and artistic uplift? 

, , however, worst comes to 

worst, and cheap music and vaudeville kill the con¬ 
cert and the theater, as is already being done, let 
us at least make a stand together in the interest of the 
few who really care and insist that ragtime effects 
shall be obtained from ragtime writers or the ragbag 
or any other available and suitable source, and that 
really good music shall not be mutilated, degraded and 
disgraced by being subjected to the “ragging” process. 


That Weak Measure 

By T. L. Rickaby 

To THE school boy or girl, ninety per cent, is a fine 
grade. The musical performance that is only ninety 
per cent, good is another matter. When the hostess at 
breakfast apologized for a dubious egg. the polite guest 
answered Parts of it, madam, are excellent.” Bu> 
who wants an egg only parts of which are good? And 
it is the same with other things besides eggs. 

In the case of a piece of music, one doubtful meas¬ 
ure here, another one there, a difficult passage evi¬ 
dently not mastered on this page, and a slip or two on 
that will render the performance as a whole unsatis¬ 
factory no matter how well done “parts of i " 
otherwise be. As a chain i ' 
weakest link, so is 
poorest measures. 
w^rk° k J U L f ° r these , weak measures. Concentrate the 
Thm w ll i t0 tHe exclusion of everything else, 
will hT Pl " y ‘ ng , be " evened U P’” the w eak Places 
smooth Strengthened ’ and the rough places made 


i is just as strong as i 
a performance just as good as i 


JUNE 1918 


THE ETUDE Page &8 


The Etude Master Study Page 


In this group of Russian composers we meet those 
masters whose works have embodied the various phases 
of Russian and Slavic genius. In many instances we 
find that they have accomplished an almost miraculous 
amount of work in face of the fact that much of it 
was done in their “spare time,” while they were busily 
engaged in other occupations. Many were almost 
entirely self-taught, and several did not even com¬ 
mence their musical activities in earnest until they had 
reached manhood. 

The spelling of Russian names (owing to the Russian lan- 

speUtag^ls' Klven aS bi e '« ’^iSonf 0 TOe 8 fonowing 

Musical Times (London)*™ These spellings“lee' fVeqMntly 
seen in modem discussions of Russian compositions In our 
Grolemctimiary baTe US<Kl ^ BpeIllugs ad °P ted by the 

Balakirev (ba-lS-ke-reff). 

Borodin (bo-ro-din’). 

Oui (koo’-ee). 

Dargomyzhsky (dar-go-misb'-ski). 

Glinka (Glink'-a). 

Glazundy (glaz-O-noff). 

l.eschetizsky (les-che-titz-ki). 

MoszkOwski (mos-kof'-skl). 

Musorgsky (mO-sorg'-ski). ’ 

Rakbmaninov (riik-mSn'-e-nof). 

Rimsky-KSrsakov (rim'-ski-kor-sa-koff). 

Stravinsky (straf-in'-ski). 

Skryabin (skryii'-bin). 

Tandev (tan-e-yof). 

TchaikOvski (chi-kof'-ski). 

Michael Ivanovitch Glinka 

Glinka’s chief distinction lies in the fact that he 
was the first of the great national composers of Russia. 
He was born June 1, 1804, twenty-six years before 
Anton Rubinstein. Rubinstein found almost immediate 
favor for his compositions as he wrote almost entirely 
m a German style, so that he could almost be classed 
as a German composer. Glinka, on the contrary, saw 
the rich treasures of Russian folk-music, and endeav¬ 
ored to bring the spirit of Russia into his work. 

Glmka was a nobleman by birth, and a highly cul¬ 
tured gentleman. After some preliminary studies he 
came under the educational direction of the Irish 
pianist-composer, John Field, in Moscow. Field took 
a great interest in his pupil, and Glinka became an 
accomplished pianist.' At the age of thirty he went 
to Italy, where he remained four years. Then he went 



A Group of Russian Composers 

to Berlin, where he studied under Dehn and resolved 
to become a composer. 

on e f e T?’ 

J^, aV01 ' lte operas of , th « Russian people, Russian 
an .°P e ‘ a for which the Russian poet Pushkin 
ipaic negro ) wrote the book, also became a favorite after 
'^production in 1842. He made additional ft^s to Pa"s" 
Spain, Italy and Berlin, where he died in 1857 
Tn to his operas lip partly completed two sym- 

Ei?" ^ote _ otller works for the orchestra, some 


phonies 

songs, Sume cuani 
While Glinka did 
Russian composers. 


s a pioneer he deserves imi 




Alexander Sergeivitch Dargomijsky 

Dargomijsky is another notable Russian example 
of the self-taught musician. He was born in the prov¬ 
ince of Toula, Feb. 14, 1813, and died at St. Peters¬ 
burg Jan. 29, 1869, Of excellent family, he was edu¬ 
cated for the government service, and did not begin to 
devote himself seriously to musical composition until 
he was twenty-two years of age, when he withdrew 
from the Control Department. In his childhood he 
had many musical surroundings, which developed his 
taste, but it was not until he was twenty that he met 
Glinka, who advised him to take up music as a pro¬ 
fession. Glinka loaned him the harmonv exercise 
books he had had when he (Glinka) studied under Dehn 
in Berlin. This was the only theoretical education 
that Dargomijsky ever had. In 1839 he produced his 
opera Esmeralda on a plot by Victor Hugo. In 1856 
his opera Roussalka was first given. Notwithstanding 
the popular success of these works he went on a 
lengthy tour of Germany, France, England and Bel- 
gium, to extend his musical vision. Only in Belgium 
did his musical work receive great popular favor. 


Inspiring Balakirev, 
e new ideals of the 
that. Dargomijsky’s 


Alexander Porphyrievich Borodin. 


Upon bis return to Russia he met ti 
who set the composer’s mind toward 
rising Russian School, with the resu 
later works represent a notable advanc,. 

The opera 

Russian composers came to call it "The Gosnel ■’ \nnrt 

works for^rchestra' a f''W U y™al^orkYarad'a*d^ueT^o^pbmol 
Alexander Porphyrievich Borodin 
Borodin was a son of a prince of Imeretia and was 
born m St. Petersburg Nov. 12, 1834. He was trained 
to become a physician, and for two years served in 
a military hospital. Later he became professor of 
chemistry at the Academy of Medicine in St. Peters- 
burg In 1862 he met Balakirev, and became a ready 
disciple of that master. Although he still kept up his 
interest in medical matters and wrote many treatises 
l ' p0 ! 1 o * e , sub ) ect he also achieved great things in music, 
n 187/ he visited Liszt at Weimar and later visited 
Brussels Belgium, where his compositions met with 
decided favor. He died Feb. 28, 1887, as a result of 
overwork. 

siw-EsS;! ES 

J f w 2 p ™ du . c( ‘ d . until after Borodin’s death. 

sssr • ^songs Sf-jsaa 

Cesar Antonovitch Cui 

Although well known as a military engineer of high 
rank, Cui has constantly followed his fondness for 
music and ranks among the most gifted of the Rus¬ 
sians He was born at Vilna, Poland, Jan. 18, 1835. 
H.s father was French. As a boy Cui received instruc¬ 
tion from the noted Polish composer Moniuszko. Dur¬ 
ing his military studies he was forced to give uo his 
music but when he graduated, at the age of twenty- 
two, he met Balakirev, who incited him to take up his 
musical work again. Thereafter he was almost en¬ 
tirely self-taught. It seems inconceivable how a man 
who was a Lieutenant General in the Russian Army, 
a Professor of Fortifications in a military school (Czar 
Nicholas II was one of his pupils) could find time to 
80 much musical work of high character, 
melodic charm and exceptional finish. 

mu S kp1e’el 0 «n t d 0 m I Jreh m . aDy ?° ngs i , ' horaI wwks - 


? p ?£ a f/, the best known of which was on the English 
subject, William. Itatchfte. Cui died March 15, 1918. 

Mily Alexeivich Balakirev 

Balakirev is one of the most notable examples of the 
self-taught musician, having received even less assist¬ 
ance than Wagner, Elgar and other masters who have 
depended upon themselves for their musical training 
in large measure. He was born at Nijny Novgorod, 
Dec. 31, 1836. His mother taught him the rudiments 
of music, and a friend in whose house he lived gave 
him free access to a large musical library and per¬ 
mitted him to play in a private orchestra. At eighteen 
he removed to St. Petersburg, where he gained the in¬ 
terest and protection of Glinka. Glinka at once real¬ 
ized that he had found a disciple and a successor, and 
Balakirev in turn made an immense impression upon 
such composers as Cui, Borodin, Rimsky-Korsakov and 
Moussorgsky, doing much to help them preserve the 
Russian spirit in their music. He first, however, in¬ 
sisted that his pupils become familiar wtth the great 
musical art products of the masters of other European 
countries. 

While Balakirev’s works are not numerous thev nr» « 
ceptlonal in character and force. Of Ills seven works tor 
overture, Kinn Lear, and his symphony are 
probably the best known. He issued several collections of 
° f a national tym. lie produced a number of com- 
Including the Oriental Fantasy 
, by . Bome F'auists as the most difficult 
composition for the Instrument. 

Modeste Petrovich Moussorgsky 

The music of Moussorgsky carries with it such a 
radically new and different atmosphere that many have 
been led into the mistake of believing that he was un¬ 
schooled in the works of preceeding masters. This was 
not in any sense the case. Born in Karevo, Russia, 
March 16, 1835 (two years after the birth of Brahms) 
he remained an amateur until he was twenty-two, when 
he met Alexander Sergeivitch Dargomyzski, who had 
likewise started his musical career as an amateur, only 
to become later the bridge between Glinka and the new 
cult of Russian music which is so strongly impregnated 
with the folk spirit of Russia. It was Dargomyzski 
who inspired Moussorgsky to take up music as a career, 
but Moussorgsky had already received a fine prelimi¬ 
nary training, as he was able to play many of Liszt’s 
compositions as well as a Concerto by Field when he 



Modeste Petrovich Moussorgsky. 








































































Page 374 THE ETUDE 


JUXE 19i 8 




.Nicholas Andreievich Rimsky-Korsakov. 

ivas only nine years of age. He became an enthu¬ 
siastic student of Schumann and Beethoven, as well as 
of Russian composers. 

Many of the foremost Russian composers at that time 
fofth/J ™L f „'i ti “E y « of , eam,I >S « livi"* “t m,u5J alone and 
n .,!!fe Borodin, Cui and liimsky- 


dlitary, professional o 

S and accepted a 1 
was compelled to t 
elp keep body and sc 


& to align his music . 

°J e ™ w0lk and a naturally sensitive disp 
St Peiershurrfaia^eh i ,is forty-second’b 

^Moussorgslty, like W, _ = __|_JJ^| 

^ 1 the whole field of Russian 

, •• - most daring modern French 

thought for himself, and his employment of 
ol the orchestra is so original and so 
is been widely imitated. He was especially 
bells, suggesting (hose of the great Rus- 


'drals. ° f in's” ignorance 1 of 'some 
F® said Jo l?ove contributed to his originality, 
le^thoi'ough eC -~--* 0 - 1 -. He never had any, 


r himself. 

'if in producing his 
originality?"' ills 'best-known 


He 


imsky-Korsakov, 
’ ~ T orks. Who 
some of his 


originality? Ills best-known work is his national opera 
Jlon, Ood^.wr, first produced at St. Petersburg in Till; 

cn in recent years with a gorgeous production liv 
the Metropolitan Opera Company of New York. His other 
operas, lh e Matchmaker (one act only) and Klwvanstchina 
are less known. in addition to these, Moussorgsky wrote 
three works for chorus and orchestra, several so£gs of very 
pianoforte pk‘ces f ° U1 orcllestral P ieces and a small group of 

Nicholas Andreievich Rimsky-Korsakov 

Although Rimsky-Korsakov was nine years younger 
than Moussorgsky (he was born March 18, 1844), his 
well developed technic in his art enabled him to write 
with so much more facility that his works became 
known and popular long before those of his less fortu¬ 
nate confrere. He was born in Tikhvin of well to do 
parents. His musical ins,ruction commenced at six and 
at nine we find him making attempts at composition. 
His aristocratic parents were determined that he should 
enter the Navy and accordingly he graduated from the 
Naval College at the age of eighteen. Meanwhile he 
managed to keep up his work'in music, receiving much 
inspiration from Balakirev. During a cruise lasting 
three years lie finished bis first Symphony. This was 
given m 1865 in St. Petersburg. Although he did not 
retire from the Navy until 1873, he devoted more and 
more of his time to musical composition and to teaching. 
(He was Professor of Composition and Instrumentation 
in the St. Petersburg Conservatory.) Among his many 
highly successful pupils were Glazounov, Ippolitov. 
Ivanov, Liadov and' others. 

Rimsky-Korsakov was generally recognized 
greatest of Russian orchestral conductors he was a 
defatigabie student of orchestral effects, with the r 
that h| s mastery of this phase of musical work is consh 
greater than that of any other Russian conn 
ientious spirit induced him ti 
4 Of the works of Dargomvzski 
(Prince Igor) and Moussoi 


(Khovantshina and Boris Bodounov). 


Sergius Ivanovich Taneiev 

Rimsky-Korsakov, Balakirev, Glinka and other Rus¬ 
sian masters deserve high praise not merely for their 
accomplishments as composers, but for the guidance 
they have given to others. Taneiev was a notable 
example of this. Not only through his instruction, 
but through his ideas and through his compositions he 
was a great leaven in the Russia of his day. 

Taneiev was horn at Vladimir (province), November 18, 
1856. Me was the son of a government official and attended 
the Moscow Conservatory, studying with Nicholas Rubin¬ 
stein and Tschaikowsky. In 1875 he gained the first gold 
medal ever offered by the Moscow Conservatory. After con¬ 
cert tours as a pianist, he succeeded Tschaikowsky as the 
professor of composition at Moscow, and later succeeded 
Nicholas Rubinstein and klindworth as the professor of 
5-188(1) Taneiev 
unui s"~~ 

trilogy in eight scenes,' @ entitled Orestes!’ a*nd "various 
choruses. Like his great friend and teacher, Tschaikowsky, 
he wrote a work on musical theory. 

Taneiev died June 0, 1915, near Moscow. 

Alexander Constantinovich Glazounov 

Glazounov, like Schumann, was the son of a pub¬ 
lisher and bookseller. He was horn at St. Petersburg, 
August 10, 1865. His musical studies began at the 
age of nine and shortly thereafter he commenced 
musical composition. When he was fourteen years of 
age he had the good fortune to meet Balakirev, who 
wisely advised him to go on with his general educa¬ 
tion before devoting himself exclusively to musical 
composition. Thereafter he studied with Rimsky- 
Korsakov and in one year and a half completed his 
course in musical composition. At the age of sixteen 
he produced his first' symphony. To indicate to the 
readers the thoroughness of Glazounov’s methods, it is 
only necessary to state that he re-orchestrated this 
work five times before he permitted it to be pub¬ 
lished (Opus 5). 


Sergei Vassillevich Rachmaninov 

Rachmaninov, a cousin and pupil of the fam 0Us 
Russian Liszt-exponent Siloti, was first known as a 
pianist, but in more recent years the success of hi s 
compositions for the piano and for the orchestra ha s 
given him a wide reputation as a composer. Rad,, 
maninov was born at Novgorod, April 1, 1873. Hi s 
pianoforte studies commenced at the age of nine, a, 
the St. Petersburg Conservatory. Later he studied 
composition with Taneiev and Arensky at the Conser- 
vatory at Moscow. In 1892 he made his first tour as a 
pianist and since then has appeared with great success 
in most of the art-capitals of the world. 

lie often appears In the rflle of composer, pianist and 
conductor at the same concert. Of his compositions for the 
orchestra, the best known is the l*lnnd ol Death, inspired 
by the famous painting of Arnold Rorkrlln. A number of 
songs and choruses, some chamber music, and particular!,- 
his pieces for piano, have been very favorably received. Ill) 
famous Prelude in <’Z Minor lias become one of the most 
famous compositions for the instrument. 

Igor Stravinsky 

Stravinsky was horn in Petrograd, June 5, 1882. 
His education was planned to make him a lawyer 
and it was not until his twenty-second year that his 
attention was turned seriously toward music, although 
he had excellent instruction in his childhood. In 19(13 ; 
he wrote a sonata for piano which aroused the interest t 
of Rimsky-Korsakov. In 1908 he produced a Scherzo^ 
Symphonique and in 1910 his famous ballets, Oiscau 1 
de Feu (Bird of Fire) and Petrouchka, both works 
astonishing even sated critics by their novelty ami 
daring. Removing to Paris he presented his musical 
pantomime Le Sacre du Printemps. 

Ills opera. The Nightingale, written In 1909 but not 
in that tb f °co P ”^ U<-tl d” l“ I>,,rlM ,l " t ‘ l ,n H. Ik Hlgnllicant, 
this form. He stales: "I can write music lo words, that is. 

songs ’ or music to action. Hint Is. • ballets," Imt the co¬ 
operation of music, words and action Is a thing that dallv 
becomes more Inadmissible to our mind. Music can he mar I 
both without bigamy." I 
orchestral works, his I 


n 1900 


In 1907 __ „„ v 

if Doctor of Musie upon him. 

1 „e jj---inov djffeis Jrom that of most of the 
of Balakirev, his own works are for 

..-,e and academic Hl , was 

13v Influenced by the Ger- 

_ ... -e-sitlons are far more volu- 

mtnous than those of other Russian masters, with the ex¬ 
ception of Rubinstein and Tschaikowsky. Although he has 
ho has not shown the fond- 
ope,a whl(h has characterized the works of other 
“® an composers. His opus-numbers include seven svm- 
“E° y of he™ received with immense 

favor in all parts of the musical world. 

Alexander Nicolaevitch Scriabine 

Scriabine (pronounced Skrya’-been, as though in two 
syllables, and not in the Italian fashion) is probably 
the Russian prototype of extreme modernism, as were 
Debussy, Ravel and Satie in France and Schoenberg 
in Germany, unless Stravinsky can claim that honor 
for his fatherland. 

Scriabine wa$ born at Moscow, January 10, 1872, and 
died from blood-poisoning. April 27, 1915. He was a 
pupil of Safonoff and Taneiev at the Moscow Conser- 
vatory. A gifted pianist, he made many tours, playing 
ion , 7 > "*a compositions - He visited the United States in 

7- Attention was first drawn to his works through 
his many earlier and very delightful pianoforte com¬ 
positions, conceived in the spirit of Chopin, hut not 
imitating that master. On the other hand, his first two 
symphonies suggest the workmanship of Wagner. In 
later years, however, when Scriabine became an ex¬ 
tremist, his third, fourth and fifth symphonies mark 
astonishing developments in originality. In his last 
symphony, Prometheus, he introduces what he termed 
his chord of mystery, a chord founded upon a system 
Of fourths rather than thirds as our present harmonic 
system is founded. Naturally the discords were very 
startling. 

Aft T a ke L board ° f color Tv tUierJ per 
light could he sent forth ov^rtealmienee , 11 orTn'a 
!" accompany certain motives in the symphony Scriabine 
tion as related 

w, '» also said to have possessed. Foi v ™ r!i ,. lr 

th. ami relationship between colors and certain deg 
" “ for popular discussion. 

~~e his five Symphonies (the 


Tinhine’s principal woi _ ___ _ __ 

In K Major, Opns 26, has a choral finale likeTr, 
. . f'T. On-heMra, Opus, 2b, a Piannfi 


studies, impromptus. 

For five years <1898-190:.i is.-nami 

pianoforte at the Moscow Conservatory. 


Opiix go, three’ 

preludes, mazurkas, etc. 

“' ■'ine was professor c 


Ten Test Questions 

isian masters who'were practically self- 

Russian national composer? 

"The Stone Guest." 
celebrated professor 

itinguisbed military 
ing of the Influence of Balakirev. 

music cf -_..y distinctive? 

Russian master of ia- 
10. Tell something about Scrlabine's musical art theories. 


Alexander Nicolaevitch Scriabine. 


JUNE 1918 




The Artistic and Educational Importance of the 
Polyphonic Music of Bach and Palestrina 

By REV. F. J. KELLY 

Father Kelly 


I’fiJ 


The ordinary musician’s acquaintance with music ii 
its different phases, is 9 very limited one. Music in 
its monophonic style, forms the greater -part of this 
acquaintance. We shall see the meaning 4 of the term 
monophonic,” later on. The subject of polyphonic 
music or music of more than one melody, is almost a 
stranger in our midst. This latter style of music is 
rarely treated and still more rarely relished. To the 
lover of polyphonic music, this is an enigma. To him, 
the realization has been brought home, that polyphonic 
music is the support, the very backbone of the classic 
music of to-day. It is the very essence of the art 
and science of music. It is true, it is not the fault of 
polyphonic music that even the ordinary musician does 
not appreciate and value it, for that fault lies some¬ 
where else. Still it is painful to the polyphonic lover 
to realize this. He knows and appreciates that vocal 
and instrumental polyphonic music qre regarded, and 
are in reality, the most scientific, the most difficult, and 
the most artistic music written. What Milton, Shake¬ 
speare, and Longfellow ape to literature, what Michael 
Angelo and Raphael are tp the art of painting, Pales¬ 
trina, Bach and the other writers of polyphony are to 
the art of music. As the great painters, poets and 
scientists cannot be appreciated by the uninitiated, so 
It .IS not surprising to find the polyphonic style of 
music misunderstood and underestimated by those who 
esteem themselves well versed in the science and art 
of music It is not a matter of taste, as some would 
have it, but rather of education, pure and simple. 
Polyphdny id music is the art’s highest expression. 

When considering harmonic support to a melody 
we distinguish two very different styles of music. We 
can accompany a melody with chords, either simple 
chords, or m an elaborated form. Again we can 
divide the notes of the chords into many voides. these 
no es being sung or played simultaneously with the 
ann!a w ° dy ' Such music - ih which the melody 
tones m- rtf ' rt ° ne V °' Ce ' and su PP°rted by harmonic 
tones m the other voices, ,s termed monophonic music. 
Ibis is the music that is so very common to our ears 
and which we cannot possibly mistake. In fact it 
is so common, that some had led themselves to believe 
that it is the only form of music. Yet, we have 
another style of music, in which distinct melodies are 
adtled to a given melody, each melody entirely inde¬ 
pendent of every other melody, yet harmonizing most 
wonderfully with the leading melody. Each melody is 
d.s net and independent in duration and movement, 
ims is what is termed polyphonic music. 


of the foremost American authorities upon the music of the Catholic Church. The followin' 
article will prove very interesting to teachers and to music lovers. 



longing, the first attempts were made in joining to¬ 
gether two independent melodies, harmonizing with 
each other, thus giving pleasure to the ear. Here we 
have the very beginnings of the classic form of music, 
known as the fugue form, the most -perfect, the most 
complete embodiment of polyphonic form. In the 
fugue, as all voices are of equal importance, the player 
is obliged to use the fingers with the utmost indepen¬ 
dence, in order to bring out the melody as it appears 
in each voice. 

Each voice in the polyphonic style is a melody, thus 
this style of music is essentially melodic in all voices, 
and must be considered and thought of horizontally.’ 
Monophonic music, on the contrary, has but one mel¬ 
ody, which is supported by chords harmonizing with it 
and therefore might best be represented by one hori- 
zontal line denoting the melody, supported here and 
there by short perpendicular lines, representing the har¬ 
monic or subordinate support. The folk song is a very 
good example of the latter style of music. It has the 
appearance of a line of notes on top, namely the mel¬ 
ody, with groups, of other notes hanging down from it, 
here and there. A Bach fpgue is a perfect example 
of polyphonic music, having the appearance of three 
four or five interlacing lines of notes 
Although to the monk, Hucbqld, must be given credit 
of having first thought of the beautiful structure of 
polyphonic music, yet in the sublime choral works of 
the great Palestrina, we have really the beginning of 
this style of music properly so-called. Among the dif- 
erent styles of figured music, the polyphonic composi¬ 
tions of this great genius occupy the place of honor. 

It became so much his own style, that polyphonic 
music was known by no other name than the Palestrina 
sty e of composition. He brought it to its highest 
state ot perfection. His first melodies were taken 
from the Plain Chant of the early church. 


Music of One Melody and of Many 

We find here then, the distinction or difference be- 
tween monophonic and polyphonic music. In mono- 
finr f Tu WC find ° ne mel ° dy assum ihg all impor- 
" ° ,tSel f’. s “PP°rted and put in the foreground by 
atn°r; p Wh ^ harnl0 r S . haVe n ° individ uality when 
of musir fl 6 PeCUhanty of the Polyphonic style 
of music ,s the exact opposite. That portion of the 
music, which in monophonic style is merely the support 
of the chief melody, becomes a tissue of Secondary 
melodies, hardly less important than the chief one, 
: wh,C V hey harrnonIze most beautifully. I n poly¬ 

phony each voice has something individual and inter- 
esting to do. Each voice is equally important, having 
absolutely nothing to do in making the chief melody 
more prominent, as in monophony. 

Polyphony, which means literally manv voices, was 
the very first attempt made, even before such a thing 
as harmony was thought of, to the building up of a 
mus cal art for more than one voice. Up to the time 
fn advent of Polyphonic music, the art appeared 
in the form of one voice or unison, the Plain Chant 
melodies, and secular Greek music. The monotony of 
the unison music of the early church caused composers 
of that period to long for variety. To satisfy this 


Palestrina, the Sanctifier of Polyphony 

The polyphonic music of Palestrina was the first 
figured music to be recognized in the service of the 
church. Before his advent, figured music was looked 
upon more as a pagan art. He secured its proper rec¬ 
ognition as a Christian art in his great polyphonic com¬ 
positions, and its right to a place alongside the unison 
chant in chprch service. 

Polyphony then found its first really worthy expres¬ 
sion in vocal music in the great compositions of Pales¬ 
trina. He composed little or nothing of an instru¬ 
mental character. Many years after, we find this style 
of music applied to instrumental form. This was the 
natural course, for polyphony itself, suggesting many 
voices, each voice singing its independent melody. 

1 j °u We " nd thlS style of music attempted to be 
bymany ° n * ° r tW ° perSOns ’ instdad of being sung 

Bach’s Instrumental Polyphony 

In the Inventions, Preludes. Toccatas and Fugues 
of Johann Sebastian Bach, we have the first great 
examples of polyphonic instrumental music. More¬ 
over. polyphonic music heretofore had been mostly if 
not entirely ecclesiastical in character. In Bach’s 
works, it began to assume a secular character. What 
Palestrina was to ecclesiastical vocal music. Bach was 
to secular instrumental music, j Bach’s works in the 
polyphonic style, have such depth and perfection of 

conS % fi V tudem Can g0 on studying them, and 
continually find new sources of delight. Bach com- 
P °„ S . ed 3 S rea <-Mass in B minor and numerous sacred 
can atas. but his matchless fugues are the masterpieces 
of the musical world. They are the wonders among 
miisxal compositions. To follow the motive in one 
of Bachs fugues, affords the keenest pleasure to a 
well-trained musical ear, a pleasure that is satisfied to 


the full when one arrives, at. the end of the fugue. 
It is true, that the ear sometimes has difficulty in fol¬ 
lowing the motive, as it enters in the different voices, 
because of the intricately interwoven character of the 

ugue form. In the ordinary composition in mono- 
phonic form, we have but one melody upon which the 
ear is always riveted, without any distraction. In fact 
the harmonies make the melody stand out prominently! 
It is composed like the lines of poetry, with a pause 
here and there, when? the ear has a chance to rest as 
it were, before resuming. This is not the case with 
the fugue form, which is a continuous composition, 
from beginning to end, with melodies interwoven in 
such a way, as to demand strict attention on the part 
of the ear. Perhaps this is the reason that fugues ar« 
considered dry. 

Artistic Economy of Material 

Many of the compositions of the present day, in 
fact, many of the compositions of the great masters, 
contain superfluous tones that add nothing to the 
harmony or scheme of design. Such music may be 
beautiful, but as an art it is-defective. In Bach’s com-' 
positions though, there is not a note, not a dot, that 
one could afford to sacrifice; * The motive in his fugues 
does not merely enter in the different voices and dis- 
miss, but it is developed the very utmost, without 
any confusion of outline. Bach is supreme among all 
composers in this, even in his smaller compositions for 
two voices. In his grand polyphonic scores, each voice 
stands out prominently, the melodies interplay har, 
momously forming one grand whole, the admiration 
of the player and the hearer. His compositions, al¬ 
though dating back several' hundred years, are ever 
, n ?, odern D , ever . interesting, and will always remain so. 
With Palestrina, he will always stand forth as the 
great musician of the ages, because of the fact that 
to them we owe that sublime form of music known as 
polyphonic music. 

Musical Culture Derived from Study of Bach 

To those who are interested in the playing of the 
piano or organ, I will say, that there is no other style 
of music, that will at the same time, so improve their 
technic and their taste. Very little difficulty in other 
forms and styles of music will be met with, by one who 
plays Bach intelligently. In addition to this if one 
really appreciates the music of Johann Sebastian Bach, 
he is assured that his taste for the right kind of music 
has been developed in the highest degree, for to play 
Bachs music intelligently, arid to appreciate all the 
beauty it contains, requires something more than mere 
ear training and technic. It requires appreciation. 3 
musical sense, and ability to study seriously at the 
same time as one listens. The musician of to-day is 
judged by his ability to play, understand and appre¬ 
ciate the works of Johann Sebastian Bach. Such great 
composers as Mozart. Beethoven. Schumann. Liszt, 
Chopin and others, were deeply impressed with the 
works of Bach, drew inspiration from them, and put 
their trust implicitly in tbje composer of them 
Jfi<§Py his consideTat, °n of Bach and his music, we 
■riY i0Tm r SOme Ilttle idea of the benefit a student 
tT AT 6 l 3 Seri ° US Study of this ^at genius. 

In tdehme alone a student acquires the utmost indepen- 
dence and equality of finger action. It is extremely 

infolveV 0 B C i U ' re R t 0 J ay n ° thing ° f the “' effort 
t helon d ' t ■" BaCh j mUSIC ’ technic is P lace <l where 
t belongs. It is secondary. His music makes appeal 
to the intelligence and calls for concentration of mind 
and clearness of thought. A judicious teacher will 
always encourage the study of Bach, for his music 

XenTof thUrt <CtUal rathCr tha " the em ° tiona1 ’ 










































JUNE 1918 


P.aqe 376 THE ETUDE 

Relaxing the Muscles in Piano Playing 

By Edward Ellsworth Hipsher 

|, The emotional element, or what generally is classed 
as expression, in piano playing, depends largely on the 
quality of tone drawn from the instrument. This 
quality, in turn, depends almost entirely on the condition 
of the rpuscles of those members of the body which act 
on the keyboard and through it on the vibrating strings. 
Tense, rigid muscles coming in contact with the keys 
are bound to produce soulless, unsympathetic tones; 
while free, supple muscles, responsive to the will and 
sbul of the performer, are just as sure to draw forth 
titles characterized by beauty, sympathy, and what, for 
lack of a more apt expression, we term a human 
quality. 

-To begin, we must concede that, during any use of 
the arms or hands, absolute relaxation of their muscles 
is a Condition towards which we are to strive but which 
we-never completely realize. Without contraction of 
the muscles there can be no motion of the member 
which they control. What we want is that the desired 
motion shall come about by the least possible contrac¬ 
tion necessary to produce the desired result; and that, 
in cjoing this, all rigidity shall be avoided, the muscles 
maintained in a responsive, vitalized condition and 
used in a manner to produce the least possible weariness.- 

The Fingers 

Let us begin with the easiest member to control— 
the finger. 

We will first use a simple exercise, the first five 
letters of the scale of C, up to G and back, playing 
each letter as a whole note in slow common time; that 
15, giving each tone four slow counts. Spasmodic con¬ 
traction and rigidity of the muscles used in playing 
come about more through haste and consequent ner¬ 
vousness, or through haste produced by nervousness, 
than through any other cause; so these conditions must 
be quite eliminated. 

■ Let the hand lie easily in the lap. Pick it up with 
the palm down, allowing the fingers to droop in grace¬ 
ful curves as the hand comes to position over the kevs. 
Let the thumb (right hand) drop on middle C, all the 
other fingers remaining at least a half-inch above the 
keys—a little higher will be better. Count four to this 
tone. Then, allowing the hand to remain quite at rest 
^nd relaxed, bring down the second finger on D, with 
a quick, sharp stroke, using no muscles but those of 
the finger, and being quite careful .that there is no 
jerking of the hand. At the instant this finger touches 
D, lift the thumb from C and to a position even with 
the other fingers not in use. You thus will secure a 
ringing, musical tone, a desirable legato, and will do so 
with a minimum of effort and contraction of muscles. 
Proceed thus to G and back. 

I'or the left hand start with the little finger on C 
in the second space of the bass. Proceed as just 
directed, to the thumb and back. Until you can do this 
satisfactorily with separate hands, do not attempt it 
with-both at once. Also, after some trials on the tones 
of the scale of C, transpose it, beginning on any key 
of the instrument and playing the first five tones of its 
scale. Here you have the foundation of all finger 
technic and a study which you never will outgrow. 

The Wrist and Arm 

To develop looseness in the muscles of the wrist and 
arms, use small chords in which. the extreme notes 
wuh not be more than a sixth apart. Thus a simple 
triad in its different positions may be used to avoid 
monotony. First, the wrist must be gotten into a 
relaxed or devitalized condition. To do this let the 
arm hang loosely at your side. Shake the hand back 
and forth and sidewise until it begins to feel numb. 
Slowly lift the arm with the hand still vibrating. Bring 
the hand over the keyboard so that, as the hand vibrates 
up and down, the tips of the fingers will touch the 
keys just enough to make them sound, striking all 
tptes. of the chord at exactly the same instant. If the 
muscles of the arm or wrist begin to tire or tighten, 
cease at once, and begin with the other hand. When 
you have acquired the ability to continue striking the 
notes for some time with the wrist remaining quite 
supple, try to develop more tone, by grasping the kevs 
with the muscles of the fingers just at the instant they 
come in contact. This is an excellent preparatory 
exercise for wrist staccato to be used on octaves or 

And now- for playing full chords. Lift the hand and 


forearm over the keys. Let their full weight fall on 
the chord, grasping the keys firmly with the fingers. 
With the fingers'still on the keys, relax the tension of 
the muscles from elbow to fingers, bend the wrist 
upwards easily and lift the forearm till the fingers are 
lifted (not dragged) from the keys, allowing the hand 
and fingers to hang limply. If this relaxing of the 
museles and lifting of the hand from a bended wrist 
is developed into a habit it will eliminate all cramping 
of the muscles of the hands and arms as well as 
relieve the pianist of half the fatigue of playing. Thus 
heavy chords become a pleasure both to execute and to 
be heard. 

_ Relaxation is the key to much beauty in both execu¬ 
tion and interpretation of music. To it the great 
Carreno attributed much of her success. By careful, 
thoughtful, persistent effort, any of us may acquire it 
in a high,degree. 



Claude Achille Debussy. 


The Passing of Debussy 

The passing of Debussy, the great French composer, 
on March 26th, is a matter of such significance to the 
musical world as to call for more than passing comment. 

Debussy was in the height of his powers—his style, 
an inimitable and unique one, fully formed and de¬ 
veloped—and he showed no trace of having exhausted 
his creative ability and fertile poetic fancy. His Violin 
Sonata, one of his most recent works, showed his skill 
in a most favorable light. 

Debussy’s harmony is exceedingly original, over¬ 
riding all the accepted ideas of the text-books, and 
using certain discords that defy analysis; he was also 
one of the first, if not, indeed, the very first to employ 
the '‘whole-tone scale” on occasions. His fame, how¬ 
ever, by no means rests on his bold escaping from the 
older conventions—certain very cheap little men, whom 
it is not necessary to name, have endeavored to leap 
into fame by this stepping stone—but on the fact that 
he was a genuine tone-poet who sought out a new 
musical idiom in which to express ideas for which the 
old was no longer sufficient. 


Beware of Small Losses 

By W. F. Gates 

Managers of factory, or store do not fear the big 
losses, as they are equipped to detect the possibility of 
a big loss at once and to guard against it; it is the 
many little losses that cause them concern. 

The music sludent may realize his loss of time if he 
is away from his practice two weeks or two months, 
but he may overlook the fact that if he skimps on his 
practice half an hour a day for a month, he has lost 
three working days. An even greater waste than this 
is produced by not giving the full mental effort to the 
work in hand: in other words, in not doing all the 
time one’s very best. 


Habit 

By Louis G. Heinze 

It is just as easy to form a good habit as a bad one. 

Habit keeps your mind in the best trim. You follow 
a habit almost unconsciously, saving brain wear and 
time. Your mind grows round a habit, however, and 
you should be careful to acquire only good ones. Your 
body is marvelously capable of being trained to habit, 
and when it is well trained leaves your brain free for 
other things that are big and vital and creative. 

Shall we here suggest several good habits for the 
music student to form ? 

Get the habit of having a fixed time for practice, 
and allow nothing to interfere with it. 

Get the habit of slow playing, slow enough so that 
every note, with proper fingering and correct rhythm, 
can be done the first time. 

Get the habit of punctuality in the attendance of 
your lesson. Do not miss a lesson unless you are too 
ill, for a lesson is needed most when it has not been 
properly prepared. 

Get the habit of playing for others whenever you 

Get the habit of reading musical literature and Thi 
Etude as often as time will allow. 

Get the habit of memorizing something every day, 
even if it be only one measure. 

Get the habit of playing only what is good in music 

The Inspiration of a Goal 

By L. U. W’illltson 


Looking ahead to a greatly desired goal is the first 
element in the success of the musician. If you have nn 
goal, get one at once. Fix some glorious purpose in 
your mind,—some definite cogent thing that you want tn 
do. It may be merely the strong desire to play some 
particular piece,—it may be the hope of appearing in 
public at some concert,—it may be the idea of writing 
a successful composition and having it published. If 
you have no goal in your music, your work is wholly 
profitless. The business man sets a certain aim every 
year. He says, "I am going to try to earn $10,000.00 or 
$20,000.00 this year.” He may only reach $4,000.00 or 
$12,000.00, but his goal has helped him along to that 

Perhaps the best goal of all is that of planning to 
help others who need your help. Such a goal will add 
to your soul stature. The following lines from Rohert 
Louis Stevenson have always been a great inspiration 
to the writer of this article: 

"We live in an ascending scale r then we tire happily, 
one thing leading to another in an endless series. There 
is always a new horizon for onwardtooking men. and 
although we dwell on a small planet, immersed in petty 
business, and not enduring beyond a brief period of 
years, we are so constituted that our hopes are inces¬ 
sant like stars, and the term of hoping is prolonged 
until the term of life." 


Have You Learned? 

By Dorothy M. Latchem 


- YOt learned to understand a piece of music 
merely by readmg it as you would a poem or story? 

. E V0L LEARNED to avoid playing that which has 
/ a am short - ,ive d popularity, and all so- 

2 SKT- ” hic " n< ” 

Have you learned that effort based on intelligent 
m is ound to reap a world of accomplishment? 
ve you learned that there is never such a thing 
as a piece of luck, but that the afghan of success is 
made 0 f many squares of hard work which are slowly 
and patiently pieced together? 

Ha VEVOU learned to conquer a difficult task with 
unflinching determination and stolid perseverance? 

, • E '. < ? L LEA * NED value of accurate observation 
and intelligent listening? 

learned that Without enthusiasm and 
stoical fortitude you can never rise in your profession? 

d"w back l f here ? NKI) ‘° gn " “ d hcar ’ reach ° U ‘ hm ' 

fin2 A ;™r,o“ A r“" ,r °"' 


JUNE 1918 


THE ETUDE 


Page 377 


Practical Helps in Organizing a Summer 
Holiday Music-Study Class 

How Hundreds of Teachers May Bring the Inspiration of Fine Music to Their 
Communities and Turn Their Vacations Into Liberty Bonds 

Every summer 


...-- and more students continue their 

- studies right through the months of July and 

August, with perhaps only a week or ten days for 
vacations. In colleges, conservatories and Chautauquas 
there is often as much or even more activity in music 
as m the middle of the Winter. It is the time of the 
year when the teacher can make those steps in ad¬ 
vance without which she would go hopelessly on and 
on in a rut. It is the time when the ambitious student 
who realizes that this is an age of the keenest compe¬ 
tition takes advantage of precious days to get ahead. 

This year the war prosperity will give thousands of 
students the long looked for opportunity. Many have 
wanted their children to study music for years. Now 
the golden chance has come, and while Europe is torn 
with the horrors of the great fight for 
democracy our children will be training 
in those things which add beauty to 
peace. 

Moreover, in certain parts of the 
country climatic conditions make music 
study in the Summer far more enjoy¬ 
able and agreeable than in the Winter. 

This is especially true in certain rural 
districts in the Northern States, where 
traffic in Winter borders on the im¬ 
possible. In these communities the 
teacher expects to make every moment 
of the Summer count. 

Other teachers very foolishly worry 
along with a few pupils, whereas they 
might have a full class if they only 
took a few steps to secure them. A 
little regular advertising, a few recit¬ 
als and a series of letters have meant 
the difference between a full class and 
an empty one. 

Practical Advertising 

We give herewith a specimen adver¬ 
tisement which any teacher might use 
in a local paper to advantage. It gives 
• all the principal points and gives them 
in an engaging manner. How many 
times it might be advisable for you to 
insert such an advertisement depends 
upon both your community and your 
ambition. There is a general principle 
in advertising that the value of the ad¬ 
vertising investment is rarely realized 
until advertising has been continued for 
some time. In some instances adver¬ 
tisements have been inserted that, with 


(e) Australia—Grainger—Molly on the Shore. 

,, (f) England — Bennett — Fountain. 

5- Brazil Gomez—Aria from “II Guarany” (Vocal). 
6. Japan — -Poldini—Japanese Study. 

7- France-^-Saint-Saens—Mazurka G min. 

8. Russia— Tschaikowsky—June, Barcarolle. 
p. Portugal — Albenis — Tango, 

10. America. 

11. Everybody Sing—“Star Spangled Banner." 
Souvenirs of little national flags of the Allied nations 

a re very inexpensive and appropriate. They may be 
obtained through all good department stores and large 
general mail order houses. 

c Don’t expect to get new pupils, especially in the 
bummer, without enterprise and advertising. Pupils 



Interesting Summer 


Courses 


in Music Study 



This summer thousands of students in all parts of America will 
commence the study of music. 

The need for the priceless inspiration and good cheer which 
music brings was never greater than now 

wUI brins * -“*■-»* to 

c . hil ,f s to the best music and the best instruction is 
one that all sensible parents respect. 

The undersigned has prepared a Special Summer Holiday Course 
FifthGra r des f0r th ° SC “ FirSt ' SeC ° nd ’ Third ’ Fourth ™d 

While students may begin at any time, it is far better to begin 
as soon after the close of Public or High School as possible. 
SPECIAL SUMMER RATES. CALL AND 
TALK OVER DETAILS ANY EVENING 
INTERESTING STUDIES j BRIGHT PIECES : QUICK METHODS 


10. MacDowell—To a - Wild Rose. 

11. Gounod—VAngelas (Four Hands). 

One great big inducement that the teacher can offer 
at this time is to start a class in Musical History or in 
Harmony. It might even pay to give instruction in 
these subjects free to pupils studying piano or violin- 
the only expense being the purchase of the History book 
or the Harmony book. It is surprising what progress 
can be made in such studies during the Summer season. 
Pupils who have had such benefits are invariably better 
pupils for the simple reason that they know more of 
what they are studying. 

It is impossible to give the teacher advice upon what 
ttie tee for the Summer Course should be. A little 
more reasonble rate for the Summer season should be 
desirable. A reduction of 25 per cent, 
from the regular Winter rates might 
do in some cases where a large class can 
be obtained. In other cases the Summer 
is the regular teaching season because of 
climatic conditions, and there could be 
no drop in rates that would be just to 
the teacher. It is not always desirable 
to advertise a reduction in rates, as such 
reductions rarely appeal to pupils who 
prove desirable in the long run. 

An informal personal letter directed 
to parents, accompanied by an announce¬ 
ment similar to the newspaper adver¬ 
tisement given on this page often brings 
returns at less expense than the news¬ 
paper advertisement. Ascertain the ad¬ 
dresses of the parents of children in 
your community, and send them some 
such letter as the following- 


XUTaXuPu 

•r inches idie. 
a musical cha, 


r local paper i 
*ur*p< P p r M °*b 


“Dear Mrs. Watson: 

1 may be pleased to learn that 1 


- zzzcjti tcu mat, wim 

f * ln f le appearance, have brought fabulous returns, 
but the music teacher should not look for this. 
Patience and enterprise in all other directions, supple¬ 
mented by increased efforts to make the lessons excep¬ 
tionally interesting, should prove profitable moves. 

Remember that in the Summer season it is harder 
to hold interest than during the brisker weather, but 
at the same time one should realize that there are far 
fewer things to distract and it is easier to get attention 
in the first place. 

A fine idea to get attention early in the season would 
to the^ollowing **** ^ 3 Pr ° gram similar 

Music of the Allies 
/. Everybody Sing—America, 
s. Belgium. 

(a) IVcyts—Silver Bells. 

3 Italy Braeckmann ~ Flutterin 9 Butterflies, 
la) Bossi—On Sunlit Waves. 

(b) Sgam bati — Vecchi0 Menuetto. 

4. Great Britain. 

(a) Ireland—Field. J.—.Nocturne in F.b 

(b) Scotland Macbeth. A.-Forget-me-not. 

(c) Wales Men of Harlech-March 

(d) Canada—David Dick Slater-Fairy Dance 


don’t make up their minds to come to you unless you 
let them know that you are expecting them. Get the 
interest of the editor or music critic of your local paper 
Show him this article, tell him what you are trying to 
do, and he will unqestionably cooperate with you. 

Of course, this program is only a suggestion. The 
teacher may make any suitable arrangements to fit the 
class of pupils. It will pay the teacher to keep in the 
studio at this time several copies of Community Songs 
These are very reasonable, as the words and music can 
be prpeured for 10 cents and the words alone for 3 
cents. (Special rates on quantities.) 

Another recital 0 f great interest to both pupils 
and parents can be built up along the following lines: 
Bright Classics for Little Folks 

1. Bach—Little Preludes, No’s. 1 and 2. 

2. Handel—Gavotte in G. 

3- Haydn—Andante (“Surprise Symphony"). 

4- Mozart—First Three Compositions. 

(a) Elgar—Salut d’Amour 

5. Schubert-Military March (arr. by Sartorio.) 

6. Mendelssohn—Children’s Piece, Op 72, No 4 

(a) Gneg—Dance of the Elves 

7. Chopm-Funera! March (arr. by Sartorio). 

«■ Schumann—Knight Rupert. 

9. Massenet — Longing, Op. 10. 


have decided to conduct a Summer Hol¬ 
iday Music Course during the vacation 
season. Most children have far more 
time for study in Summer than in Win¬ 
ter and have less to take their minds 
from the subject than during the school 
days. The reason why so many chil¬ 
dren get restless and uneasy during the 
Summer is that they have no regular 
« « xpaee tuo ^ work to enga 8 e their attention. 
nnnspaper It: 's my plan to make music as en- 

U mable as possible, so that every pupil 

will find a new delight in it everyday. 

. , J sh °uld feel very much pleased indeed 

‘° hl ;i y - ca " so ™f even >ng between eight and nine 

23^-ST UP ° r V VC know "> and ‘he time for 
study is really surprisingly short at best. 

“Very cordially, 

“Alice P. Hatton.” 

™ EeIy w J- ite letter and then sit down 
thinking that you have done all that can be done Send 
more letters if the first does not bring its result always 
avo.ding the suggestion that you are pressing things un 
duly. Make opportunities to call upon prospective na¬ 
trons, outlining the advantages of music in the home 

Z'llt7 0 ?Sl£ iae thera with the faciliti « y°u 

deriS^T?’ Cm , erp , rise ' tact ’ hard work, a sincere 
desire to help and, above all things, a cheerful attitude 
and determination to see that both you and your dudi'Is 
enjoy every moment of the Summer Holiday Z c 
Study Course, will work wonders for von 

I his is not the Summer when the teacher can afford 
at wnrlT- excess ‘ ime ln idling. The whole world is 

-vs 

£££ )L "h£ 

Will this year turn their vacations into Libertylonds"*' 









































V '■ ■ \ ^ 

Pag& 378 THE 


- 


JUNE 




■ftam-i'’ :■■■■■:■: . : ' ' ■ ' 

m : : ___ —— -----J 



The Teachers’ Round Table 

Conducted by N. J. COREY 


This department is designed to help the leather upQn questions pertaining to "How to Teach" “What to Teach, 
Musical Theory, History, etc., all of which prc/perly belong to the Musical Questions ’Answered department. Full nc 


The Four Sides of a Parallelogram 


“2. If the signatur 
is E minor, Is E numl 


"4. Is c minor called the parallel minor to C 
major?” — B. L. 

1. A is the tonic, or number, 1, in A minor. It is 
number 6 only when the scale begins on C. 

2. The tonic in both the major and minor key is 
always number 1. In the movable Do system, Do 
always applies to the tonic of the major scale. In the 
relative minor of a major, the tonic is indicated by La, 
as the best way of keeping that relationship fixed in the 
singer’s mind. The relative minor begins on the sixth 
degree of the major scale, or as is more commonly indi¬ 
cated, on the third degree below the tonic, which is 
ordinarily considered easier to compute. E minor, as 
the relative minor of G major, therefore indicates 
E as La. 

In the fixed Do system the syllables duplicate the let¬ 
ters, which causes unnecessary confusion. Theoret¬ 
ically the figures represent the inter-relationship of the 
tones of the scale. They are the same for all scales, 
both major and minor. The letters represent fixed pitch 
and never change. C is always C, with (theoretically) 
a given number of vibrations to the second. Practically 
there has been a slight variation between the different 
pitches that have been in use from time to time. In 
the movable Do system, the syllables, as well as being a 
convenience in vocalizing, are also made synonymous 
with the figures, and singers are more likely to think 
of them as expressing inter-relationship between the 
tones of the scale. 

Historically the syllables antedate figures, and in some 
foreign countries they are used in place of the letters. 
For example you will read that the key of a given piece 
is Sol major, instead of G major. There have been at 
various times more or less violent discussions between 
the advocates of the fixed and • movable Do systems 
respectively. 

3. The parallel minor of any major scale is the scale 
having the same tonic. Therefore the parallel minor of 
C major would be C minor. A minor is the relative of 
C major. The relative major and minor scales are the 
two having the greatest number of notes in common. 
For this reason they have the same signature. Neither 
the parallel nor relative minor of C is called Fa, which 
is the fourth degree of the scale. Perhaps you inad¬ 
vertently wrote Fa for La. 

4. The parallel minor of C major is C minor. 

Class Lessons 

“Please advise me about giving class lessons. I 
have thirty-eight pupils and can hardly “get 
around” with two private lessons a week. I have 
read a good deal about class lessons, but do not 
know how they are given. What books and ma¬ 
terial are used In such lessons?”—L. J. 

I have never known of class lessons in the real sense 
of the term in teaching the piano. Such classes are 
limited to from two to four persons. In a class of four 
pupils each one gets fifteen minutes of the hour de¬ 
voted to the lesson. Aside from the fact that each 
pupil may watcR the others, the teaching does not 
differ from that received in a private lesson. Years 
ago some schools used to advertise six in a class with 
beginners, but I do not know whether this custom is 
continued at present or not. Your pupils should come 
to your studio. No lesson should be longer than a half 
hour. Your seventy-eight lessons can then be given in the 
six working days of the week in about six hours each, 
which is a reasonable day. In. the large musical centers 
the lessons lasting one hour each have long been 
obsolete. Some give forty minutes; the majority thirty 
minutes, and some twenty minutes under certain con¬ 
ditions. Exactly the same music is used in class as in 
private lessons. 


Mature Taste With Elementary Technic 

"A. pupil of twenty-one years plays third grade 
very slowly. I have put her in Mathews' second 
grade, use Mason's Touch and Technic, and will add 
“" -lenti Sonatinas. Ought she not 




__ ___o .cailld you suggest sonfe 

that will not be advanced and yet do not sound 
childish.”—M. W. 

A grown-up taste together with a childhood technic 
often occasions trouble. I fancy from your letter, also, 
that in this case the so-called classical repertoire would 
not be enjoyed, and that simple sentimental pieces 
would suit best. Introduce, rapid movements rather 
sparingly. For a backward pupil of this sort the 
Lichner Sonatinas sound more modern than the de¬ 
menti, and as you can buy them in collected form from 
the publisher, you will find many suitable movements 
that you can select. Abandon the idea, however, that 
you must use an entire sonatina. Only use such move¬ 
ments as seem best. May Bells, twelve little lyrics by 
Spindler, will also provide you with some pleasing 
pieces. Souvenirs of the Masters by George L. Spauld¬ 
ing will provide you with many favorite melodies of 
the great composers arranged in attractive form for 
those unable to encompass them in the original. Each 
of these, as they appeal to you, can also be purchased 
singly for use with other pupils if you so desire. 
Another album that you can use in the same way is 
Young PlayeYs Album. In this there are seventy 
pieces. By keeping a copy of this on your piano you 
can use it as an index from which to make suitable 
selections for your pupils. It is a fact that many 
pupils soon grow tired of a book that is placed before 
them, while they are pleased with the same pieces 
selected singly in sheet form and given them one by 
one as they need them. There is a peculiar kind of 
ignorance that often has to be contended with. It even 
applies to vocal teachers. Recently in this city a voice 
teacher lost a pupil because he gave her a collection of 
a certain famous American composer’s songs, wishing 
her to study one of them, this particular group being 
published in no other way. The mother sent word that 
she wished her daughter to “learn sheet music.” 


A Job for Job 


n hands, separately. When she 

roget*-'- *•- - — 

---„ht it 

you suggest any help?”- 

Such a pupil as this needs to go over the ground a 
great deal more thoroughly than the averaee pupil 
Secure for her the A B C of Piano Music bv Mrs’ 
M. B. Hudson and let her have a thorough drill from 
it. Then proceed to the Beginner’s Book for Piano by 
Presser. If necessary supplement this with First 
Studies in Reading. Rhythm and Expression by M. L. 
Brown. Proceed from this study to Presser’s School 
of the Pianoforte, Pol. e. If all this accomplishes 
nothing, you will probably have to give up the job. 
Your description sounds like a hopeless case from the 
start. 

Weight Again 

a you give 

.eight touct.. „ 

bow to explain It tn the ehild. 

“I would like a list of the best and most lnter- 

HadTfou^-U. §! eCeS ’ fr ° m the very easlest 
In the November Round Table you will find a few 
words on this subject. The term "weight totich” is 
largely a readjustrrtenf of phfaseologv regarding old 
conceptions. It may be considered a n£w explanation 
of “pressure.” and includes the modern down arm 
touches. There is a tendency among some teachers to 
explain too much to the child. The educational prin¬ 
ciple of the Thing before the Explanation is the best 
for children. They cannot assimilate recondite mat¬ 
ters. They can often do things, although unable to 
explain processes. It suggests the jibe of the Hoosier 
wag who said he “could not lay an egg, but that he 
was a better jtidce of an omelette than any hen in all 
Indiana.” Don’t try to explain too much to a child. 


- and not technical problems pertaining to f 

'e and address must accompany all inquiries. 

Show him how to do things. If you are not familiar 
with the various modern touches, you are not ready t 0 
understand weight, as it is in reality the combination of 
them all. Teach the child the use of the hand so f ar 
as he needs it in his work as he progresses, and leave 
recondite explanations until he is old enought to take 
them in. 

Be cautious in the use of classical pieces with chi|. 
dren. The first requisite is to interest such pupils 
Many a child has been utterly discouraged in his 
music study by an overdose of music he was incapable 
of enjoying. A judicious intermixture is good in all 
things. Second grade: Mozart, First Three Composi¬ 
tions; Don Juan Minuet; Schubert, Premiere False; 
Bach, Prelude A 'o. t ; Haydn. Four Gems from Haydn; 
Beethoven. Andante front Kreutser Sonata. Theme from 
Emperor Concerto. Third grade: Handel. Saraband, 
Hummel. Rondo in C' : Haydn. Four Gems, /•'. G. and F. 
flat; Bach, Little Prelude ,\'o. ?, Mozart, fragment 
from Concerto; Dussck, La Matinee; Schubert. IFaltze, 
Op p. Grade four: Handel. Gavotte; Mozart, Sonata 
No. i; Schubert. Three Themes from Stk* ■ 
delssohn, Song without Words, No 16; Chopin, False, 
Op. 6g. No. z, False Op. if. No. s; Schumann. Plumen. 
stuck. If you order music through a local dealer state 
the name of the publisher, oiherwise he may not know 
where to order from. 

In Rural Districts 


v (tutrlrt. is ml being the belt 
piiiver in me VKinnv am n*ke<| to give lewoni. 
allhough m.v training lin* m,l been lie,rough, nor 
advanced be.vond the fifth grade. Should I attempt 
to take pupils through the elementary gradesr — 

Is there any reason why you cannot, through your 
own efforts, give close and conscientious study of ynnr 
subject through every printed avenue of information 
you can lay your hands upon. Some learn more by 
their own efforts than by those of their teachers. 
Indeed those who do not do so rarclv become first 
class musicians, the function of the teacher being, so 
far as this work is concerned, that of the guide and 
trainer who watches to sec that all is progressing 
properly. If you know wherein your training has been 
most deficient, you should devote yourself first to 
filling m these gaps. Once you begin self-study you 
will be astonished at the number of avenues that will 
open up before you. Making of yourself a conscien¬ 
tious student in this way. there is no reason why yon 
should not teach in the manner you suggest, and make 
of yourself a force for good in vour community. In 
such a neighborhood you are not likelv to have students 
who will carry their work beyond what you have 
already done. 

“ Art Is Long ” 

. long should It take a student of average 

lnternrei« I ?i™il. rl *'‘. and Porfect. both technically «n<l 
Griefs Vnricel£< of ,,,e f . v P«* and character of 

c»rleg s A onregian Bridal P rare Prion A. B. 

This is an interesting question to more than cue 
piaver. In a general way my answer to the queslion 
would be,—twenty-five years. If you are technically 
S? ( °, p,ec £ when you begin its practice a month 
Mill probably suffice to fix it in your fingers, although 
i may require longer to make it a part of vourseE 
borne pupils memorize while learning a piece, often- 
terad T', nR '! commi «ed before it is technically mas- 
branch^r ?u° therS havc to make a special study of this 
tinn ol°r , ^ C art ' From the standpoint of interprets- 
' factors aT ,0n ,S a mat,er >•— The two principal 
ractors are maturity and life experience. This is true 
f ln a PP re ciation and in interpretation. It is rare 
mmi!V rtISt „ t0 acquire complete dominance overs 
musically intelligent audience before he has travelled , 
per ec in5 ^ Eve " P^ers who are young 

creted ™ c °fiiposition so that it mav be well inter- 
fimls I 3 " 5 that k ^ould be taken up two or three 
times with intervals of time between. To use a good 
o tr eXprc ^ ion ' music has to “soak in' 
the I ! C ° meS ass,milaf ed in a manner that enables 
‘he player to interpret with authority. 


THE ETUDE Page 379 



Karl Philipp Emanuel Bach. 


KARL PHILIPP BACH, third son of J. S. 
known as ‘*the father nf mnHom - 


Johan Christian Bach. ' Wilhelm F. E. Bach. 

„Sf?? A . N ! S °I.f?SY , _® EBASTIAN BACH 


Wilhelm Friederich Bach. 


JOHAN CHRISTIAN BACH, e 
Joban bebastian Barth, known th< 
as he was the music master of the 
family. He wrote several successful 


i son ofh WILHELM F 
ih RoyaL. Bach’s ninth son 


lived in London e 


High Lights in the Life of Johan Sebastian Bach 


Bach’s ancestors had been musical for generations. 
One of them, Veit Bach, a millef, used to take his 
guitar into the mill with him and play on it while the 
nriil ground. But many of them were professional 
musicians. Philip Spitta, in his great three-volume 
Life of Bach, gives an interesting account of many of 
them; people of the most upright, sturdy and honest 
character. 

Bach’s father died when he was nine years old, 
and he was sent to live with his older brother, Johann 
Christoph. 

Bach’s father had already given the boy violin les¬ 
sons; his brother taught him the harpsichord or 
clavichord, and the organ. He also sang in a fine 
choir which Jerimias Weinrich, a schoolmaster at 
Eisenach, had established. This choir sometimes 
marched through the streets singing. 

Bach was ambitious to play from a volume of organ 
music by Pachelbel, which his stern elder brother kept 
locked within the wire lattice of a bookcase. At last 
he stole down at night, succeeded in withdrawing it 
through the wires, and began to copy it by moonlight. 
Taking advantage of every opportunity to go on with 
the undertaking, in the course of six months he had 
the book completely copied, when his brother discov¬ 
ered him, and was so hard-hearted as to take away the 
dearly-won copy. 

Bach and his friend, George Erdmann, boys of fif¬ 
teen, set out together for Liineberg, to attend the school 
called the “Convent of St. Michael,” at Easter, in the 
year 1700. They had been recommended on account 
of their skill in music, and both of them succeeded in 
paying their own tuition and living expenses by their 
services in connection with the music. Here he re¬ 
mained three years. The “School of St. John,” at the 
same place, also had a choir, and there was great rivalry 
between them. 

Bach lost no opportunity, while a young man, to 
listen to eminent organists and learn from hearing 
them. Often he tramped many miles for the purpose. 

On one of his journeys to Hamburg his money was 
nearly gone, and he seated himself outside an inn, 
half way on his return journey, exceedingly hungry 
but afraid to spend his last money while still so far 
from home. Suddenly a window was raised and two 
herrings’ heads flung out. The hungry lad picked 
them up, and inside of each was a Danish gold coin 
The unexpected wealth enabled him not only to finish 
lus journey in comfort, but to make another journey 
to hear the organist Reinken. (It should be remem¬ 
bered that all the noted organists of that day were 
not simply players, but largely composers of the music 
they played, printed music being rare and expensive ) 
Bach received the appointment of Court Musician 
at the court of Johann Ernst, younger brother of 
the Duke Wilhelm Ernst, of Weimar. Here his skill 
as a violin player found him employment, and he com¬ 
posed some sonatas for violin and trios for flute, vio- 
lin and “figured bass.” 


Bach visited Arnstadt, where he had relations, and 
.played on the. organ at the New Church— a fine in¬ 
strument for that day, but in the hands of an incom¬ 
petent organist. The young organist of eighteen made 
such an impression on the consistory that they imme¬ 
diately engaged him for the post, making an honorable 
and even generous compromise, however, in their 
dealings with the former -'organist. 

Bach entered on his new duties with the greatest 
joy. l or one thing, the organ was a fine one, having 
ten sounding stops on the Great, seven on the Choir, and 
hve on the Pedals. This organ still existed until 1863. 
(The "swell” was not found on early German organs.) 

Bach at this time wrote his first sacred cantata, en¬ 
titled Lor Thou Wilt Not Leave My Soul in Hell, for 
the first day of Easter-tide. It was accompanied by 
three trumpets, drums and stringed instruments, he- 
sides the organ, and was the forerunner of a great 
-series of such compositions, too little known at pres¬ 
ent, in which Bach’s genius found most congenial 
expression. 

Bach’s brother, Johann Jakob, set forth on his 
travels, to enlist in the Swedish Guard of Charles 
i , as. oboe player. He returned once more to take 
leave of his family and friends, and Sebastian com¬ 
posed a piece for him which was to serve as a re¬ 
membrance of his brother when at a distance. It 
consisted of five short movements, and represented 
, various moods and scenes occasioned by his broth¬ 
ers departure. I.t is half humorous, half pathetic. 
The title, which was in Italian, is Capriccio sopra la 
lontananza del suo fratillo dilettissimo. 

Bach after two years of Armstadt, petitioned for 
leave of absence, and made a trip to Liibeck, in order 
to hear the great Danish organist, Buxtehude. Here 
he found such a congenial artistic atmosphere that he 
lingered for four months, long outstaying his leave 
of absence, regardless of consequences. 

Bach became engaged to Maria Barbara, his cousin, 
daughter of Michael Bach, of Gehren, while she was 
on a visit to Arnstadt. He had previously received a 
reprimand from the church authorities for having “a 
stranger maiden,” as they described her, sing in the 
church, where a boy choir was supposed exclusively to 
render the music. 

Bach had several situations as organist offered him, 
and in Easter, 1707, he accepted a position at Miihl- 
hausen. The salary agreed upon was 85 gulden, two 
cords of wood, and a certain amount of fish, corn 
brushvVood, etc. ’ 

Bach stipulated for a vehicle to transport his young 
bride and her dowry to their new home. At his rec¬ 
ommendation his needy cousin, Ernst Bach, was an- 
pointed to his former position in Arnstadt. 

tU w"* t0 ' iye at Anhalt-Cbthen about 1718, at 

the invitation of Prmce Leopold, himself a highly- 
cultured musician, as well as an appreciative patron 
of m,,s,c He stood on the most friendly terms with 
his princely patron, as is evidenced by the fact that 


the Prince stood as godfather for the Bach’s seventh 
child. 

Bach kept up, even now, his custom of making jour¬ 
neys to enlarge his musical experience. He went to 
Halle, Carlsbad and Hamburg. On his return from 
Carlsbad he was met with the overwhelming news of 
his good wife’s death. 

Bach used to tune his own clavichord, and devised 
the present system of tuning used for piano and or¬ 
gan—"equal temperament”—the only system in: which, 
with hut twelve notes to the octave, pieces in several’ 
sharps or flats can be as well in tune as those, in the 
key of C. Partly as an exhibition of this property, 
he wrote his collection of 24 preludes and -fugues 
(later adding a second volume, making the number 48 
in all), called the Well-tempered Clavichord. In this 
collection are to be found two preludes and two fugues 
in every possible major and minor key. 

Bach was chosen, in 1723, to the post of Cantor to 
the town school of St. Thomas, at Leipsic, from among 
six candidates. Coupled with this was the position 
of organist in the church of the same name, adjoin¬ 
ing the school, and the direction of much of the mis¬ 
cellaneous musical activities elsewhere in the city. 

Bach had an official residence assigned him in the 
left wing of the school buildings, and entered upoh 
a career of quiet and busy usefulness which occupied 
the remainder of his days. 

Bach here had opportunity for cultivating music in 
all its forms, and his productiveness during the' follow¬ 
ing years was colossal. Besides his Christmas Ora- 
tono his Passion, According to St. Matthew, his Mass 

K t ZZ° r ’ f h * S numerous sacred cantatas and his 
eight books of organ music, he wrote suites for or¬ 
chestra, concertos for violin and for one, two and 
hlvr th f Ce ’ p ' anos ’ a C °ff ee Cantata, poking fun at the 
d L ( /° v d , nnkmg ' which was a newly-intro- 

£„“ d it ” ” d * ™ 

Bach married again, apparently happily, and his 
family increased to twenty children, several of whom 
were musically talented. He suffered from time to 
time from quarrels and misunderstandings with the 
clerical and city authorities, who failed to appreciate 
him at his true worth. appreciate 

Bach became blind in his old age; doubtless it was 
m some measure due to his overtaxing his eyes with 
so much music copying, and in his efforts to engrave 

S *“»*«*— 

Bach’s actions were based on a genuine piety which 
was not the outcome of any mental struggle, but in 
born, and natural; he clung to the tenets of his fathers 
He was fond of reading theological and edifying 

cla2 at his death '' nClUded 83 V ° Ws of th « 











































; 

Page.88a THE .ETUDE / '. 

Bach paid a visit to Frederic the G're^t, King of 
Prussia, at his invitation, in May, 1747, a nr? found him 
an appreciative patron. He composed a work called the 
Art of Fugue, also known as the M&sical Offering, 
which he dedicated to the king. 

Bach himself has told of his happy home life and 
of the little concerts he delighted in conducting with 
his sons, his wife and his eldest, daughter. He took 
conscientious care of the education of his children, 
which was one object that proved attractive to him in 
moving from Cothen to Leipsic. 

Bach died on July 28, 17S0, from apoplexy. About 
ten days before his death his sight, which had been 
wanting for several years, was mysteriously restored. 
He was buried near the church, but some years after¬ 
ward the cemetery was moved to another site, and it 
is no longer possible to determine the real resting 
place of his bones. The wording of the resolutions 
passed by the officials on the occasion of Bach’s death 
shows a singular ignorance and callousness to the fact 
that they were dealing with the memory of the great¬ 
est musical genius that had yet lived on the earth. 
The words read in part as follows: ‘‘The Cantor of 
St. Thomas’, J. S. Bach, having died recently, it is 
the sense of the consistory that a competent choir¬ 
master, rather than an organist, should be appointed 
in his place, although he should be able also to play 
the organ.” 


Some Points on How Rubinstein Taught 

By Arthur Spark 

Rubinstein rarely taught his pupils in private. He 
believed that the conservatory was the most appropri¬ 
ate place for one who wished to acquire a musical 
education. 

Rubinstein, during lessons, rarely touched upon the 
strictly musical. He always dwelt upon the spiritual 
side of the art rather than the mechanical. 

Rubinstein rarely or never would play for his pupils 
during a lesson. His mouth usually served as the best 
medium in order to impress them of the intricacies of 
piano playing. 

Rubinstein never permitted his pupils to bring a 
composition to him for study more than once. He 
declared that he was liable to forget what he had 
taught in the previous lesson and to create an entirely 
new picture were he to do so. 

Rubinstein, for some mysterious reason, refused to 
grant his pupils the privilege of playing his own works. 

Rubinstein would keenly study the notes of the com¬ 
position that his pupil was playing, allowing the player 
to commit no unreasonable errors, thus promoting accu¬ 
racy in playing. 

Rubinstein often said to his pupils : “Just play first, 
exactly what is written. If you have done full justice 
to it and then still feel like adding or changing any¬ 
thing, why, do so.” 

Rubinstein rather refrained from dealing in eulogical 
terms with his pupils. He was somewhat of a 
sarcastic nature, particularly during lessons, but occa¬ 
sionally he would terminate one with, “You are an ex¬ 
cellent young man,” etc., which more than accounted 
for his previous indifference. 

Rubinstein offered the following advice to one of 
his pupils: “Before attempting to strike the keys you 
must first ascertain mentally the tempo, the manner of 
touch and, above all, the attack of the first notes, before 
the actual playing begins, and the character of the 
piece also, whether it is dramatic, tragic, lyric ro¬ 
mantic, humorous, heroic, sublime or mystic.” 

Rubinstein believed that force was a necessary requi¬ 
site in piano playing. On many occasions, when the 
playing of a pupil would seem too weak to comply 
with the exact nature of the piece, he would seize both 
the hands of the unlucky player with great violence and, 
with his powerful fingers, would flatten them out all 
over the keys, thus creating a horrible cacaphony. 

Rubinstein, when one of his pupils was at loss to 
determine the correct fingering of a rather complex 
passage, said: “Play it with your nose, but make it 
sound well!” Of course, he meant to say: Help your¬ 
self! The Lord helps those who help themselves! 

Rubinstein once said: “The reason why piano play¬ 
ing is so difficult is because it is prone to be affected or 
else afflicted with mannerisms, and when these two 
pitfalls are luckily avoided then it is likely to be dry. 
The truth lies between these three mischiefs.” 

Rubinstein was not a pedagogue, in the usual mean¬ 
ing of the word. In truthful terms, he was a coun¬ 
selor, an advisor, .a guide, rather than an instructor 
moulded on the ordinary lines of pedagogy. 


The Charm of Bach’s Preludes 

By Henry T. Finck 

It is quite remarkable that both Bach and Chopin 
should have embodied so many of their inspired ideas 
in the short and insignificant form of the Prelude 
Gounod marred one, of *the most beautiful of Bachs 
, by marrying it to a vapid melody, for which crime 1 
hope he will have to serve an extra year in purgatory. 
But there are others equally fine, and I often wonder 
why so few musicians know anything about them, or 
ever play them in public, for they are the delimit of 
my soul.. Every Sunday after lunch I sit down and 
play No. 7 of the 1 'Twelve Little Preludes. It looks like 
a trifle, but in that trifle there is material enough to 
build up the whole system of modern harmonic music. 
Of course, one must know how to emphasize the mel¬ 
ody in the bass and how to set off the changing har¬ 
monies against one another. And equally, of course, 
I use the pedal in every bar. Poor Bach himself had 
no tone-sustaining pedal, but he, with his love of 
broad, sonorous basses and mingled rich harmonies, 
would have used the pedal as much as Paderewski 
does, had he lived to-day. When I hear a pedant cry 
out that the pedal ought not to be used in Bach because 
it is not prescribed I want to throw a brickbat at him. 
Such a man misses the very soul of Bach—the ravish¬ 
ing sonority and rich tone-colors with which that "god 
of harmony” doubtless heard his pieces in his prophetic 
imagination. 

After playing that prelude, I always turn over the 
page and play the next one, No. 8, printed in this 
issue of The Etude, a special favorite of mine. The 
first nine bars are good, though not specially remark¬ 
able; but the last nine are a miracle of genius. 

In any case, I trust every reader of my article will 
get it, and note with what lingering and exquisitely 
sentimental expression not only the melody, but the 
other two parts can be played. There is a world of 
romance and emotion in the last B and first A of the 
second upper part in bars 11 and 12. I have italicized 
the word “sentimental” purposely; and if any one tells 
me that sentimental expression is out of place in Bach, 
I look around for another brickbat. There are cases 
where argument is useless and homicide justifiable. 
Bach’s skull was not stuffed with sawdust. 


When Are Octaves Not Octaves? 

By Caroline V. Wood 

In answer to the above question I would say, “Usu¬ 
ally.” Many students do not play octaves at all— 
they think they do, but the thumb really does all the 
work, while the. little finger is slighted. This is es¬ 
pecially true in rapid octave passages. 

If a student is given Chopin’s Butterfly Etude (I 
cite this merely as an example—there are scores of 
others) nine times out of ten he will play it as follows : 



instead of as it is written. 



The beauty of the octaves is thus lost. If the composer 
had intended single notes he would have written it 
that way. 

The best way to correct such a fault is to go to the 
other extreme, as is often the case. Pay special atten¬ 
tion to the little finger, disregarding the thumb for 
a while— it will take care of itself. Then when you 
go to play normal octaves again the tone of the thumb 
and little linger will be more evenly divided. But be 
careful, in this practice, not to stiffen the wrist. 


JUNE 1918 

Do You Sit Properly? 

By L. D. Andrews 

Position at the keyboard has much to do with the 
development of ease and accuracy in playing, as well „ 
with the tone quality drawn from the instrument. Neglect 
of this important factor of position is often respon- 
sible for the labored effort with which many play. The 
following points in regard to the position of the body 
are important ones which are not always given the 
attention that they deserve. 

Avoid sitting too high. A high seat leads toward 
a “bangy” style of playing, since it tempts one to 
thrust down the keys. Also avoid the opposite ex- 
treme of sitting too low, for this position leads one 
to “'claw” the keys. A good height to choose is one 
that will bring the elbows level with the keyboard. 

Distance From Keyboard 

Most of us sit too close to the keyboard. Perhaps 
this is because of the fact that when we begin to play 
the piano the music does not call for a command of 
the extreme portions of the keyboard. Then, having 
formed the habit of sitting close, it seems hard to sit 
far enough away that an an easy command of the 
entire keyboard is obtained. How powerful is habit! 

But we should allow ourselves plenty of room. To 
• do so, in addition to making it easier to reach the dif¬ 
ferent parts of the keyboard, makes it easier to glance 
at the keyboard from the “corners of our eyes” while 
reading the music. A good distance to choose is one 
that makes it necessary to lean slightly forward in 
order to avoid feeling too far away. 

Remember, that a piano stool or chair (chair is bet¬ 
ter, by the way. if you can obtain one of the proper 
height) is not meant for napping. One should not 
sit far back on the seat, but near the edge—as if 
about to arise. Indeed, it should lie possible to arise 
without giving a preparatory swing of the body. 
When thus seated one is poised, so to speak, over the 
keyboard, and one can use the weight of his body 
to offset the playing exertions. I f lie were sitting far 
back on the seat, these exertions, which, though down¬ 
ward on the keyboard,are upward at the shoulders, would 
tend to topple him over backwards. 

Sit Up 

Many of us sit down when we play the piano. We 
should sit up. When it was pointed out above that we 
should lean slightly forward it was without thought 
of countenancing “humping over.” It is always true, 
whether at the piano or not. that an erect position 
is indispensable to grace. Don’t wear your chest on 
your back. Sit “at attention.” When the habit is once 
formed, it is just as comfortable as "lopping over." 

If one is careful about the foregoing points and 
still neglects to sit directly in front of the center of 
the keyboard he will find the development of the sense 
of distance very difficult. Carelessness in this respect 
is the cause of many inaccuracies in skips. 

Middle C is not the middle of the keyboard. The 
crack between middle E and F is the exact center of ] 
the keyboard of ordinary compass. This is practically 
over the lock. \ ou will be safe in choosing a posi¬ 
tion directly in front of the lock. 

Did you ever hear a person play (or at least begin 
to play ) a piece an octave too high or too low 5 It 
was probably because he was a bit "flustered" and ne¬ 
glected to adjust his seat with regard to this last 
point. 

Now’ glance back over these points (how many?), 
note them carefully, and remember them when you sit 
down to play. This diagram will help vou to re¬ 
member : 



JUNE 1918 


THE ETUDE 


r«rjc 881 


' ' 



In the story of Wilhelm Meister 
Goethe has given to the world one 
of the immortal novels in the grand 
manner of his day, comparable to 
the works of Sir Walter Scott. It, 
indeed, furnishes food for reflection 
to consider how characters in pure 
fiction persist through the centuries and seem to be¬ 
come actual entities, who "live and move and have 
their being” among the immortals, influencing the 
whole world of mere men who go down to the dust 
“and the place thereof knows them no more.” 

Wilhelm Meister and Mignon exist; Ivanhoe, Re¬ 
becca and the Templar actually live; the characters 
conjured up by Charles Dickens seem to speak to us out 
of the past; while of the countless millions who have 
been born and have died in the last century, how meagre 
the number of those who have stood out of the 
shadowy throng to influence the world or even to be 
remembered by it! Art must indeed be granted a 
place in the hierarchy of heaven, and the triumph of 
mind over matter, of imagery over actuality, must be 
acknowledged. 

The Arts Inter-related 

One of the most curious things about an Art is its 
ability to excite in the mind kindred feelings toward 
the other Arts. The painter, in contemplation of 
beauty, is actuated to express himself in. color, and 
the poet sings his praises; the musician sets the poem 
to music, which is in turn rendered by its executants, 
and millions of listeners forever can reap the fruit 
of the original inspiration. Many composers have 
been moved to set episodes of Wilhelm Meister to 
music, notably Ambroise Thomas in his beautiful 
opera Mignon which, strangely enough, is out of fash¬ 
ion to-day. The poems found in Goethe’s original 
story have offered ample opportunity for a num¬ 
ber of musical settings, for Beethoven, Schu¬ 
mann, Schubert have all delighted in the texts, 
yet it remained for Peter Ilyitch Tschaikovsky, 
in the song before us, to portray more vividly 
than any the poignant intensity and anguish of 
Mignon’s inner feelings. 

Booth, Forbes-Robertson and Sothern each 
saw Hamlet through his own artistic eye, and 
played the part accordingly; neither would or 
could have imitated the other. No great artist 
imitates. Beethoven was absolutely individual, 
classic as a Greek temple, and his setting of 
these lines is of great interest; but that of 
Tschaikovsky, though less formal, more ro¬ 
mantic, and yet written in perfectly propor¬ 
tioned dignity of line, has stood for almost half 
a century as one of the models of vocal litera¬ 
ture, and to the ear of to-day is even more ex¬ 
pressive than the setting by Beethoven. 

The Mood of the Poem 

The poem reveals the thoughts of a girl, pas¬ 
sionate and romantic by nature, suffering an 
agony of longing in the absence of her lover. 

The words are so few, so simple and yet so 
inevitable, that it seems impossible to expand 
them so as to cause them to say more than they 
do say. Yet music has done this, and upon its 
unfolded wings appear new lights and shadows, 
tawny and purpling tints, flashing colors of the 
rainbow, irradiating the poet’s original concep- 

Mignon, sitting alone, sighs out her heart. 

Only one who knows, as she does, what it is 
to experience longing for her absent lover, can 
know what she suffers now. Alone and bereft 
of all joy, she raises her eyes to the broad firma¬ 
ment of heaven above her; she gazes around on 
every side, but alas he who loves her and knows 
her inmost soul, is far away. No one who has 


A Master Lesson on Tchaikovsky’s Song 
“Only a Yearning Heart’’ 

By the Eminent American Baritone 
DAVID BISPHAM 

wlfh T a C n h ^ V n k | y r S Sreatmas ter piece will be found upon another page in this issue- 
with an orig.nal translation of Goethe’s poem “Nur Wer die Sehnsucht Kennt,” made 

ns pHi tmn Mr nov.M D:„~u >»• . ’ 


especially for this edition by Mr. David Bispham. Mr. Bispham is now engaged in 
I) | r f epi Y' ln8 for Publication a collection of the world’s greatest master songs, he has 
already presented in the columns of the Etude Master Lessons upon Schubert’s “The 
Wanderer” (Nov., 1915) and Schumann’s “The Two Grenadiers ’ ’ - - - - ne 


(Dec., 1917.) 


not felt this agony of yearning can know what such 
suffering means. Alone and joyless, she also swoons 
away, but her inmost soul is on fire. Oh, the pain of 
this sweet sorrow! Only such as have felt this long¬ 
ing can sympathize with her anguish! 

And yet, in fifty simple words, Goethe tells the whole 
story. 

"Brevity is the soul of wit,” and here, indeed, is 
much in little. But how adequately to translate such a 
masterpiece of condensation? The task has often 
been undertaken, and I claim no better result than the 
best of what has already been done; yet I hope my 
lines at least may not be unstngable. The reader may 
recall that I have said that “English is just as easy to 
sing as any other language— if we but know it, and 
know how to pronounce it”—and that the only thing 
bad about English as a song-medium is bad English!" 
So this is the result of my endeavor: 


Only a yearning heart 
Can feel my sadness. 
Alone and far apart 
From etfry gladness! 
The stars of heaven 1 set 
So far above me; 

Ah! but as far from me 
Are they who love me! 


Only a yeanling heart ■ 
m feeI my sadness, 
Alone and far apart 
■out tev’ry gladness! 

My swooning brain, on fire, 
Is nigh to madness; 

None ivho knows not desire 
, Can feel my sadness! 



Goethe had lived for eighty-three, 
ypars, and died in 1832. T’schai-,, 
kovsky was born in 1840, and dietf 
in 1893. I saw him and heard him 
conduct his own works at St. James’ 
Hall, in London, a year or two pre¬ 
viously. No one thought-then that 
the melancholy that pervades the wonderful P tithe tic 
Symphony would culminate'in the death of the gifted 
genius who conceived it. That Symphony is one of 
the most striking products of modern art, a colossal 
work and one of the master’s latest, while the song 
under consideration, small by comparison, is a gem 
of the same quality, and although written in 1869, 
about twenty years earlier, yet it bears a family like¬ 
ness, and, indeed, it may almost have been a study for 1 
the Symphony as Wagner’s Dreams was for a sketch 
for the love duet in the second act of Tristan and 
Isolde. The tragic melancholy which haunts the larger 
work is inherent in the exquisite contour of the song 
which consorts so admirably with the words of the 
poem, that it is doubtful whether any other composer' 
, our . l ‘ m ? wiI1 hive the temerity again to essay the 
task of fitting music to that text. He is wise who, in 
this case, follows the ancient adage and is content to 
let well enough alone.” 

Only a l earning Heart was published in 1869, and 
! h , of . a set of six son S s known as Opus 6, 
the first vocal pieces published by their composer. The* 
original key is D flat, but the song is considerably’ 
more useful and within the range of a much larger 
number of singers by being transposed half a tone 

the mil' S ^ < “’ lt If g ' ven here. It is obvious that 

the composer conceived the piece as one to be sung 
by an alto or mezzo-soprano voice, that, indeed, of 
“ w ° man . Possessed of great depth of feeling and over- 
mvmor m richness of emotion, and yet, as in the 
case of other songs, there is nothing in the 
tnusic itself which prohibits a man from using 
this song. 

Men’s Songs and Women’s Songs 

My readers are perhaps aware that I strongly- 
hold to the doctrine that a man’s song-should 1 
be sung by a man and not by a woman, and 
vice versa; but, for the sake of making a wider 
appeal, I have, taken the liberty, as will be ob¬ 
served, of changing in a very slight degree, the 
thought of the poet, and, in my translation, 
Have treated the verses impersonally, so that 
they may be sung either by a man or by a 
woman. The sentiment of love being universal 
it is a pity to limit so fine and effective 


flowing i 


o the u 


: of o 


a song 


Mr. David Bispham. 


Some time ago I had occasion as an artist 
to object to women, f or some unexplained rea¬ 
son, singing Ctctlia by Richard Strauss. This 
(me song is usually attempted by women, but 
it is a mans song, though men seldom sing it! 
wove is, in the poem, expressed entirely as a 
hot-blooded man would and should deliver him¬ 
self of his emotion. It is as masculine a song 
as can he found in the whole range of vocal lit- 
erature. Exception was, however, taken to mv 
point. Love is love, arid it makes no difference 
who sings the song,” I was told, to which I re 
Plied that “there is Puppy love and Woman’s’ 
love and Mans love, and that this song is th.. 
embodiment of the latter, and that any woman 
who sang it m public—knowing the meaning of 
the words was no better than a brazen hussy 
So, ye singers, have a care as to your choice 
of songs! 

Opening with a broad, sweeping, cello-like 
passage, the song leads, after eight bars to =. 
repetition by the voice part of the initial phrase 
An introduction is so essential that the only 
Kism to be made of the songs of Robert Franz 






































Page 882 THE ETUDE 

is, in my opinion, that though they are, as it were, 
rare gems perfectly cut, yet they iack settings to show 
thpm off; few have either preludes or postludes. The 
song under consideration has, however, just enough 
and no more to precede the entrance of the voice, and 
those eight measures are of’great moment; they con¬ 
tain the pith and essence of the whole plant, the song 
growing inevitably from th^t well-grounded root. 

Practical Hints for Performance 

Now for the rendering. If you know how to sing- 
some people do not I—you must begin by taking a fine, 
deep breath and controlling it well, for, as the song 
proceeds, you will have need of all your invisible fuel, 
if you hope to reach the end of your artistic journey 
'without mishap. Begin gently; it is not the place for 
expenditure of force. The song is a sigh from be¬ 
ginning to end, but the sigh of anguish, with a poign¬ 
ant outburst toward the close, and then comes the nat- 


Fingerings That 


The fingering which is found in most printed music 
is commonly not supplied .by the composers them¬ 
selves, but by the editors, or by some person specially 
skilled in the art. Although in most cases it may be 
regarded as reliable and safe to follow implicitly, yet 
cases, occur, where one’s one ingenuity, coupled with 
the realization of some peculiar difficulty, will suggest 
a new and more advantageous fingering. Where this 
occurs, it is folly to be too conservative. Why not take 
advantage of your own idea? 

We enumerate a few cases of the kind: 

Changing Fingers on Same Key 

While it is often desirable to change fingers on the 
same key in order to obtain a perfect legato, such a 
proceeding seems to me to be useless when the damper 
pedal is being held down. 

For instance, in the first measure of the popular 
Flower Song, by Lange, as printed by a prominent pub¬ 
lisher, we find: 



Now, as the pedal will sustain the Rb until and even 
after the A is played, such change, of fingers as 
herein indicated seems to me only a waste of energy. 

Probably the worst example of this unnecessary 
changing is found in Moszkowski’s Serenata. On the 
first page of one edition we find: 



It is practically impossible to play the passage at the 
proper speed and change the fingers as indicated. It is 
also useless as the damper pedal is held down at the 

Fifth Finger Not Suitable for Strong Accents 

Any other finger than the little finger should be used 
for a strong accent whenever possible as it seems diffi¬ 
cult to play very loud with it. 

In Heimweh, by Jungmarin, we see: 



It is difficult to make the-C loud enough with the finger¬ 
ing .used. I would suggest the following as an 
improvement: 



Fingers to be Changed on Repeated Notes 

All good pianists know that when a key is quickly 
repeated it should generally be played each time with 


ural relapse of “tired nature,” arid after it, mayhap, 
the “sweet restorer, balmy sleep.” A breath must, of 
course, be taken after the second bar before the sec¬ 
ond line, for the music allows it, and again a breath 
after the words, “Can fekl my sadness," a breath, and 
a good one, for two lines covering four measures must 
now be delivered before another inspiration may be 
taken. Here the dello-like passage in the accompani¬ 
ment again hints at the poet’s thought, and the artist 
.must express the panting anguish of the lonely, yearn¬ 
ing heart looking vainly for comfort in heaven or on 
earth, and again with more intense emotion and with 
more perfect breath control must be declaimed the 
line, “Ah! but as far from me, are those who love me." 
Then there is a return to the original musical theme 
and a repetition of the opening lines of the poem. 

I wish to call particular attention to the underlying 
accompaniment which, for eighteen measures, rjght in 
the middle of the song, has an almost sub-conscious 


By ROBERT W. WILKES 

a different finger. But there is one case, in the Foun¬ 
tain, by Bohm, in which this rule is not observed in any 
edition that I have seen. I refer to the following 
passage which often appears: 

When I was learning to play the piano I used to play 
this piece and I remember that I would very often miss 
one of the E’s, the reason, of course, being that I played 
it each time with the fourth finger. I have taught the 
following fingering to my pupils and it seems to make 
the passage easier for them: 


No. 6 



Thumb Under on Accented Notes 

All good teachers have noticed the tendency of pupils 
in scale work to accent the notes played by the passed- 
under thumb. In extended arpeggios a still greater ten¬ 
dency to accent this thumb note is noticeable. There¬ 
fore it is advisable, whenever possible, to finger so 
that, when the thumb is passed under, it falls on an 
accented note. 

The popular Pizsicati of Delibes is thus fingered in 
. one edition: 


How the Young Music Teacher may 
Realize Success. 

By R. J. Rosa 

Read all you can on musical topics 

Encourage your pupils to play at recitals 

Always be on time at your appointments 

Let your own playing be often heard in public 

Insure people’s confidence by keeping your 
promises 

Zeal and Enthusiasm should be your constant 
1 possession 

Always wear a pleasant smile, even when things 
go wrong 

Technic always given due attention 

Insist on each pupil keeping a note-book for 
lessons 

Over-generous rather than stingy with your 
time and effort 

Neat in dress and in the arrangement of your 
studio. 


Insure Better Results 


JUKE ms 

rocking motion, as of a human being who quietly 
sways to and fro in .the agony of suppressed gnef. 
But then comes the inevitable outburst, Alone and far 
apart from et/ry gladness." Tins must not be shouted, 
but sung with the utmost self control and beauty of 
voice, slightly faster, and no breath should be taken 
until “from etfry gladness,” which is to be sung slightly 
slower, fas though the D on the word “et/ry" were a 
dotted quarter) and held just a little in addition. 
The pianist should make the most of his accompani¬ 
ment, through all six of those measures, ending with 
a tremendous outburst of sound, after which, silence! 
Presently, as if awakening from a trance, the voice of 
the tortured one is heard very quietly and slowly to 
whisper, “my swooning brain on fire here a cres¬ 
cendo, born of experience both of life and song—apd 
the episode ends with “none who knows not desire 
can feel my sadness,” that artistic touch of nature that 
“makes the whole world kin.” 


With Less Practice 



The fingering at A, could, I think, be slightly 
improved and the one at B is susceptible of still grealer 
improvement. At B, the passage of the thumb from 
the previous Ah to the D is rather awkward at a rapid 
tempo and, more important still, there is a great ten¬ 
dency to accent the D. Of course, the accents—if any 
are given— should fall at A and B, on the second beats. 

The following fingering would, I think, be an 
improvement, as- the thumb hi this fingering passes 
under on an accepted note : 

The second theme of the Scarf Dance, hy Chamin.-.de. 
presents a so'meyhat similar case. As fingered in one 
edition, we see : ■ 

4 ^ ri i-n '< f 1 1 


The G under the cross should receive no accent since 
it comes on a half beat. If any accent is given it should 
fall on F and Ah. The following fingering would, 1 
thtnk, be more likely to preserve the natural 
accentuation: 



In Chopin’s False in E minor, the following passage, 
which is thus fingered, often occurs: 



« , » r-’“S'-. itarvtrii MUUI 

kowski s Serenqta, is rather difficult t 
the fingering given: 


i play nicely with 



The following fingering is, I think, better: 



JUNE 1918 


THE ETUDE 


Page 383 


Poem by Goethe 
English version by 
David Bispham. 


ONLY A YEARNING HEART 

NUR, WER DIE SEHNSUCHT KENNT 

ORIGINAL KEY D FLAT PETER ILYITCH TCHAIKOWSKY 

Op. 6, No. 6 







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' p espressivly 

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MM 


Vw ■■ rr r= 

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JUNE j gj 





TT/AW i.WS 


THE ETUDE Page 385 


HAWAIIAN SUNSET 

A clever characteristic piece with an effective imitation of the popular “steel guitar!’ Grade III. 


Yalse lento m.m.J = 108 RAYMOND HOWE 




Copyright 1918 by Theo.Presser Co. 


British Copyright secured 



















































































































































































































































































***• 886 THE ETUDE 

SHEPHERDS 

MEDITATION 

An effective, well-written pastoral \ valuable either for teaching or recital use. Grade IIlH 
Adagio non molto M.M.«h = 76 rs 254 


JUNE 19u 

WALLACE A. JOHNSON, o p . j 



Copyright 1918 by Theo Presser Co 


* F,cm here *•» bock to SS and play to Fine, then play Tr , 0 


British Copyright secured 


JUNE 1918 


THEETUEE 


Page 387 


THE SIGNAL CORPS 


A vigorous and characteristic military march. Grade III. 

Moderato m.m.J -=120 


MARCH 


GEO. SCHLEIFFARTH 



Copyright 1918 by Theo.Presser Co. 




























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Page 388 


THE ETUDE 


JUNE im 


ALL FOR FREEDOM 

MARCH 

SECONDO 

A rousing military march, full of patriotic fervor, with incidental quotations from Yankee Doodle , La Marseillaise and America. 

Marziale m.m.J=126 


R.M. STULTS 



> > 

British Copyright secured 


JUNE 1918 


THEETVDE 


Page 389 


Marziale m.mJ= is 


, > |> > 


ALL FOR FREEDOM 

MARCH 

PRIMO 

? 


R.M STULTS 


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JUNE 1918 


THE ETUDE Page 391 


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Page 392 THE ETUDE JUNE m 

AMID THE WHISPERING PINES 

Amelodious drawing-room piece,introducing various embellishments,having three well-contrasted themes. Good for study or recital. Grade III \ 

Andante sostenuto m.m. J.= 54 h d hewitt 

on ICP . _ >• >,* y y j. I 



Copyright 1918 by Theo.Presser Co. 


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Page 394 THE ETUDE 


JUNE 191$ 


Paraphrased by 
ALBERT FRANZ 
An effective and 


PRELUDE 

S.V RACHMANINOFF, Op_3,No,2 

playable paraphrase of the celebrated Prelude in 0$ minor, transposed to D minor and rendered suitable for smaller hands.Grade 




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FOND MEMORIES 

SONG 

second theme in I 

Softly sweetly and well sustained | | 


SONG WITHOUT WORDS MILTON D.BLAKF 

A graceful left hand melody, with a contrasting second theme in the relative minor. A good teaching piece. Grade II \ 

Rather s!owm.m.J.=54 



Copyright 1918 by Theo Piesser Co. 

















































































































































































































































































































Page 396 THE ETUDE 


JUNE 1918 


VERONA 

A brilliant an, S „„™, concert wate by . wM . kn0 J^t !L, Orab. V. EWLE ^ 



British Copyright secured 


THE ETUDE Page 397 



LITTLE PRELUDE, IN D 

See an article by Mr. H.T.Finck,on another page of this issue. 


J. S. BACH 


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Page 398 THE ETFDE 


YELLOW BUTTERFLIES 


JUNE 19i8 


Butte^fTiTs is°tbe°inost^eceh™ d° M ”' Loeb - Evans has been ver y successful with her numerous teaching pi eees . 

Tempo di Valse m.m. MA TI LEE LOEB- EVaNS 



Copyright 1917 by Theo. Presser Co. * From herego back to beginning to Fine, then play Trio. 


British Copyright secured 



Alexander Kopylow (born Petrograd 18541 i« one ol the representative modern Russians. Like the great Tschaikowsky he has been y 
htppy ta 'Le artistie numbers for less advanced players. Our present quotation is a fine example. Grade III. 







































































































































































































































































































































































































































p age 400 THE ETUDE 


A fine par. writing .. applied the piaStL. Grade V. 

Allegretto ma non troppo mmJ= 

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¥ 


ALBUM LEAP 

the pi 

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JUNE 19 IS 


ALEXANDER KOPYLOFP 

A 4 4 5 



... DREAM OP THE SHEPHERDED 

A *». — * „ medl „„ , iffloully . A 8tudy in ^ JiRhlERUESS 

/ ) u -^-^dante gr ave 

Violin 


AUG. LA BITZKY, Op. 45 


Piano 































































































































































































































































































































, DANSE HUMORISTIQUE 

and interesting characteristic teaching piece by a well known American writer. Grade II. 


Vivace m.m. J.=iao 


JUNE i 9 18 

w BERWALD 


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Copyright 1918 by Theo. Presser Co 


British Copyright secured 


JUKI! i918 

ROMANCE 

Arr.for Organ by lf r m. Noelsch THE ME 

This Theme from Mr. Hayes’ Romance in D will make an excellent opening voluntary or offertory. 

INTRO. 

Moderato maestoso 


MANUAL 


THE ETUDE Page 403 

F. CLIFTON HAYES 
Le nto con molto espressione 



yn Vy * cr —- 

.J4um 

is, '{jj'Jj HfYsV^ 


jPFull Sw, closed , ' 

--- —__Gt, and Sw. coup._ 

_Wfi>#0 77/. 


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J» 7 |jjU Ef 7 % 

JZJZIT^LSU .J ~ 

Copyright 1918 by Theo. Presser Co. 

— r ' MMM. * ^FullSw. 

British Copyright secured 

























































































































































































































































































































































Page 404 THE ETUDE 

LOVE LEADS THE WAY 

tractive encore song, with an alluring waltz refrain. Also published as a part-song for women’s voices. 


JUNE i9l8 


MARY M. HOWARD 



8 ,ow ; But what - ev - er form Love takes, 

cal1 ’ --_ But w hat - ev - er form Love takes, 


All fol low where he doth go; 

All fol - low his foot-steps’ fall’ 



JUITS 1918 


THE ETUDE Page 405 



0 JESUS, THOU ART STANDING 

William W. How SACRED DUET* WALTER HOWE JONES 



itish Copyright secured 































































































































































































































Pjf 


Page 406 THE ETUDE 

Alto 

quasi recitative 


JUNE 1 


0 Je - sus,Thou art knock-ing: And lo! that hand is scarred, And thorns Thy brow , 



cir - cle, And tears Thy face have marred. 0 love that pass - eth knowl-edge, So pa-tient-ly 



wait! 0 sin that hath 


^ p ritard. 

■ qual, So fast to bar the gate, So fast to bar the gate! 



■JUNE 1918 

The Piano and the Child 


The bad influence of badly-kept pianos 
on a beginner is a very serious subject. 
tVhen a child is accustomed to bearing 
a piano that is not in tune, his-musical 
hearing is vitiated. The notion tjjjjjt "any 
old piano" is good enough for a beginner, 
is very, very wrong. Every child' should 
have the best kind of a piano possible; 
if it is an old piano, that is bad enough, 
but it should at least be kept in good re¬ 
pair and in good tune. Three tunings a 
year is a fair allowance, but there are 
many households where there have not 
beert three tunings in ten years. The need 


for tuning does not arise, as many ig¬ 
norantly suppose, from the tuning-pins 
slipping, for that is a thing practically 
unknown in any properly built piano, 
nor from playing on the instrument either 
much or little, but from the changes in 
molecular condition of the steel wires 
under tension, the gradual stretching of 
the wires, and especially the influences of 
heat and cold. The reason that we dwell 
on this subject right here is that we have 
actually heard the children of a household 
blamed for the piano getting out of tune, 
it being laid, quite mistakenly, to their 
unskillful playing! 


Famous Piano Duettists 


Within recent years two great pian¬ 
ists, Bauer and Gabfilowitch, liave ap¬ 
peared together in duet recitals, exhibit¬ 
ing a delightfully sympathetic . ensemble. 

Jt will be interesting to recall some 
earlier examples of the sort. 

Periodically, notable players, as Tau- 
sig and his charming wife, Mendelssohn 
and Moscheles, Bulow and D’Albert, and 
the gifted Carreno startled the artistic 
world by the splendor of their perfor¬ 
mances on two pianofortes, but to say 
that the art was by them established on 
a firm or permanent basis would avow¬ 
edly be wrong.. 

This can only be accounted for by the 
fact that after a short tour they sepa¬ 
rated, perhaps never again to unite. If 
they had pursued a systematic course 
of preparation in the interests of en¬ 
semble playing, a permanency might have 
resulted; but no! 

Two great artists joined forces, and 
merely strove after the sensational, and 
although effects startling and splendid 
were produced, it was apparent to every 
one that they were out of sympathy with 
each other, and thus the high ideal of 
the Heckmann and Joachim quartets was 
never reached. 

Every one knows that this was not the 
case in the eighteenth century, when 
dementi and his marvelous pupil, Field, 
played often and long together, and to 
this combination we owe two most ex¬ 
quisite sonatas; then Mozart and his 
sister toured all Europe three times, a 
concerto, sonata, and fugue for these 
ins'ruments resulting. 

dementi’s celebrated contest with 
Mozart, in Vienna, in 1871, was fought 


at two pianos, but this well-known 
musical duel consisted mostly of pre- 
ludizing and extemporizing. 

Dussek and Prince Louis Ferdinand 
are also two honored names, spending 
much time studying and performing to¬ 
gether ; a sonata, since out of print, 
besides many minor pieces, were written 
by Dussek, and often played with Louis 
Ferdinand. 

At this time, most rich people had a 
couple of harpischords, and encouraged 
the performance of concerted music for 
these instruments; but nowadays such a 
suggestion—my, the slightest hint of two 
pianofortes in one room—would meet 
with but scant courtesy. 

Very likely one would be asked, “What 
is worse than one piano?” 

We are now witnessing a revival of 
this branch of pianoforte playing, and 
if the D’Albert-Carreno family had con¬ 
tinued together at two pianofortes after 
their wonderful success, it would have 
advanced by leaps and bounds, and their 
influence would have been felt for many 
generations to come; but it was not to 
be. The Sutro sisters are doing much 
in this line in America and have even 
secured a new two-piano concerto from 
Bruch. 

To insure the success of ensemble 
playing, much earnest study is necessary, 
and similarly proportioned technics ; then 
a knowledge of effects capable of being 
produced by two instruments (sympa¬ 
thetic vibration) placed together, and also 
the art of combined pedaling, when, for 
instance, a melody has to be taken up by 
the opposite pianoforte—a difficult feat 
to perform if a perfect legato is to be 
secured.—(From “Music,” London.) 


Spare the Pedal 


By Mae-Aileen Erb 


Rubinstein has called the pedal “the 
soul of the piano.” True, when correctly 
used, it beautifies one’s playing and seems 
to infuse a spirit of life into it. If mis¬ 
used, however, the finest composition is 
ruined. The pedal either makes or mars. 

As a rule the use of the damper pedal 
(frequently miscalled the loud pedal) is 
overdone by amateur pianists, Before 
attempting to apply the pedal at all, a suf¬ 
ficient number of pedal studies should be 
practiced until a thorough knowledge of 
pedaling is assured. This is often 
neglected. After that the pedal should be 
used sparingly and always with discre¬ 
tion. Remember that the greatest pian¬ 
ists are able to produce wonderful effects 
by a limited, but judicious use of it. 

Many piano students, in practicing, will 
make liberal application of the pedal in 
all their compositions, studies and even 
exercises! In their efforts to master the 
notes and the technic involved, the poor 
pedal is often forgotten and uncon¬ 
sciously held down several measures (if 


not more!) too long. This results in 
incorrect phrasing, a covering over of 
mistakes, a blurring of harmonies, and 
accordingly, irreparable injury to a mus¬ 
ical ear. If it is accustomed to such 
faulty use of the pedal, it can never be 
depended upon as a judge of proper 
effects. 

Never use it on exercises or technical 
studies; on compositions and etudes, only 
after they have been carefully learned 
without it. By using the various chord 
and octave movements, and by cultivat¬ 
ing a smooth, flowing legato style of 
playing, results very like those of the 
pedal can be produced. A satisfactory 
interpretation of the piece should also 
be attained before the last finishing 
touch—the pedal— is added. 


[Editor’s Note. — T he advice given in the 
above article is excellent, but there are some 
cases in which the pedal has such an Indis¬ 
pensable part in the performance of a piece 
that it is not wise to postpone its use as “a 
last finishing touch." It is often of benefit 
to introduce it in connection with the practice 
of the left-hand part alone. 


THE ETUDE Page 407 



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Music for the Wedding Ceremonies in June 

“O Perfect Love” 

by 

H. T. Burleigh 

A beautiful wedding song, quite different from the time-worn number-a 
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the words appropriate; worthy of the consideration of professional musicians 
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Piano, Four Hands.20 

Piano and Violin.30 

Pipe Organ.30 

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Piano, Four Hands.50 

Violin and Piano . .40 

Pipe Organ. -30 


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Piano solo . 

Piano, Four Hands . 
Violin and Piano. 


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Pipe Organ.25 

MELODY OF LOVE (Engelmann) 

Piano solo .50 

Piano. Four Hands .60 

Violin and Piano .50 

Pipe Organ.50 

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gggg 
























































































































































Page -408 THE ETUDE 


JUNE 1 



With the exception 

The puzzles this month deal (except No. 7) with 
various forms of Dance Music, past and present. No. 7 
is a SPECIAL— it represents the trade name to be 
found in a display advertisement in the June, 1918, 
issue of The Etude. Let us see how quickly we can 
work out all ten puzzles. 

“Puzzeling” is most entertaining and frequently very 
instructive. 

PRIZES FOR THE CLEVER ONES 

Write youf answers out on one side of a single sheet 
of paper and send by post not later than June ISth, to 
SAM LOYD. Puzzle Editor, The Etude, 1712 Chestnut 
Street, Philadelphia. Penna. 

To each of the 10 persons who send the best answers 


‘ he PiC ' UreS Represente *»* f«™ o?Dance Music" 

M„, Bennett. Heetehn,,,. G , Mi.. V„« 

JSRLfffiS?«*?. . 2 £«-x-««•»«-** 

Lake Crystal, Minn. Mrs. Elizabeth H. Clay, 


undrums,” published at $5.00. 

is meant > in the firs t Place, absolute cor- 
mu,r he ° f , answers ' Then if ™l"or points of merit 
must be taken into consideration in selecting the win- 

ne M'r n r at T S ’ n earneSS ’ etC ” wi " be decidin g Actors. 

Mr. Loyd will examine all letters received and his 
adjudications must be accepted as final by all contestants. 

Prize Winners March Sam Loyd Puzzle Contest 

N/irginm Well Stewart, P. O. Box 245, Springdale, Pa. 
Mrs. Edgar Law, 394 North Franklin Street, Delaware, 


55 Smnt^r Ury * tal ’ M,nn - Mrs - Elizabeth H. Clay, 
79 R ye Stree/^P* ° rchester ’ Mass - Benjamin Stone. 
Vine a u ’ PrOV,denCe - R - I- Mrs. T. C. Mosher, 
lard Street H wT' MaSS ' Maybc,,e Coppage, 2402 VYil- 
rd Street, Wilmington, Del. Rena Bauer, Stanley. Wis. 

Answer to Puzzles in the April Etude 

1. Staff. 2. Sharps. 3. Rest. 4. Time. 5. Flats. 
• vers and Pond (aye verse and Pond) 7. Scales, 
ccent ( axe sent’). 9. Measures. 10. Signature. 


JUNE 1918 


THE ETUDE Page ¥>9 







Department for Voice and Vocal Teachers 

Edited for June by F. W. Wodell 

“The Human Voice is Really the Foundation of All Music ."—RICHARD WAGNER 



The Physiologist and the Psy¬ 
chologist Among Teachers 
of Music 

By Frederick W. Wodell 

One extremist among vocal teachers is 
the physiologist who attempts to secure 
good tone production through the direct 
control of certain parts used in singing, 
as, for instance, the breathing muscles, 
larynx, tongue, soft palate, jaw, lips, etc. 

This method is complicated and, for 
most pupils, dangerous. For each change 
of pitch, degree of force, vowel-shape, 
color, there is of necessity.an alteration 
of the condition and adjustment of the 
movable parts of the vocal instrument. 
What a task to gain skillful, direct man¬ 
agement of such of these parts as are 
subject to voluntary control ! 

It is common experience that when a 
pupil is what is called “throaty,” to draw 
his attention to his throat is to make him 
more “throaty.” Most students are only 
too conscious of the muscles in the act 
of singing, and to teach such to endeavor 
to “work” various parts directly is but 
to make their last state worse than their 
first. 

Another type of extremist among vocal 
teachers is the psychologist. He is the 
exact opposite of the physiological type 
just referred to in his attitude toward 
the problem of teaching tone production. 
The type in mind bases his teaching upon 
"imitation.” The pupil must hear and 
imitate fine tone quality. 

Whose tone quality? If he listens to 
other singers, how is he to discriminate 
between tones of very fine, not so fine, 
and possibly bad quality? 

Presumably the idea is that he must 
go to a teacher and imitate the instruc¬ 
tor's tones. Let us assume that all teach¬ 
ers of singing are capable of giving then- 
pupils a tone of “correct” quality for 
imitation. A considerable assumption, 
but let it stand. 

No two faces are exactly alike and no 
two voices are exactly alike. 

The “individuality” of a good singing 
voice is one of its most valuable char¬ 
acteristics. Indeed some students have 
natural voices superior to those of their 
instructors. At just what point shall the 
beginner cease to imitate his teacher s 
voice, and how shall he know when that 
point is reached? The imitative faculty 
is weak in many people. It js stronger 
on the average in children than in adults. 
Private vocal teachers deal mostly with 
adults. t 

Evidently the use of “imitation, 
whether of the living voice or of the 
talking-machine voice, as a basis for the 
teaching of tone production, has its dan¬ 
gers and as well its limitations. 

We are told; by some present-day 
writers a good deal about the “Old Ital¬ 
ian” singing masters and the intimation 
is that these based their work upon imi¬ 
tation. 

Upon the facts of vocal history from 
the time of Tosi to the present, so far as 
known to him, the writer is convinced 
that while the. old Italian masters secured 
wonderful results in certain cases, the 
past fifty years has seen as good singing 


as was exhibited 
that there is just 
done in this generation as at any time in 
the world’s history. 

In fact, without at all detracting from 
the merits of the old teachers, which are 
unassailable in the case of a few whose 
works praised them, the writer feels 
justified in the belief that the best vocal 
teachers of the present day do more for 
the average voice than has ever before 
been done in the history of the world. 

Of “great” singers, we are never likely 
to have an abundance, for the peculiar 
combination, physical, mental, emotional, 
musical, which goes 
“great” singer, is 
not often met 
with. Men can¬ 
not “make” a 
voice; only the 
Creator can do 
that. The best a 
vocal teacher can 
do is to assist a 
student to get rid 
of vocal embar¬ 
rassments and 
lead him on to 
discover and use 
to the full his 
vocal powers. 

The student can 
be helped to se¬ 
cure a high ideal 
of loveliness of 
tone quality, 
through the 
“hearing” of such 
tone when it can 
be found and the 
pointing out o f 
i t s fundamental 
excellence., 

Sometimes i t 
has occurred that 
when breath con¬ 
trol and the con¬ 
dition of “re¬ 
sponsive 


their day. Further, pupil a pattern sound, asking him to re¬ 
good vocal teaching produce the vowel in freedom, form and 
6 co i or . Repeatedly the student attempts to 

do so, but fails. The instructor, knowing 
that the student is accustomed to his 
present sound and throat-feeling when 
singing Ah; that he is cramping his 
larynx and forcing his mouth into a 
particular shape, does not, as the physio¬ 
logical teacher would do, tell the pupil 
to raise his larynx, release the soft palate 
and broaden the mouth. He calls the 
pupil’s attention to the smiling appear¬ 
ance of the teacher’s eyes and mouth as 
the teacher sings the pattern sound Ah, 
make up the thus enlisting the aid of the pupil s sight, 
and suggests that 
the pupil try again 
with breath well 
managed and the 
thought of imitat¬ 
ing the free qual¬ 
ity and the color 
of the teacher’s 
p a 11 e r h sound, 
and also with the 
thought that the 
pupil’s mouth is, 
of itself, taking 
the shape which it 
has in a natural 
smile, while-the 
back of 



tongue, as if of 
its own volition, 
slides somewhat 
forward. 

The result is a 
freeing of the 
vocal instrument 
front the rigidity 
which formerly 
e m barrassed 


___uncon- 

F. W. Wodell. scious adjustment 

of the parts' in a 
manner favorable 
uca to the ■ production 

freer and brighter 

dom” (a state of muscular tonicity with quality and altogether a much more sat- 




absence of rigidity throughout the body) 
has been secured, the student has emitted 
a tone of far finer quality than he bad 
ever before heard, whether from his 
teacher or anyone else, and it was his 
own individual tone, not the result of an 
attempt to imitate the voice of another. 

The eclectic vocal teacher is in the best 
position for doing the most good to the 
greatest percentage of pupils. 

He avails himself of all avenues of 
approach to the student’s mind. He uses 
the method of “imitation” freely and gets 
it of it all of good that can be had. but 


safeguards the student’s 


isfactory vowel Ah. 

The instructor has not followed a 
physiological teacher’s plan of direct 
management and adjustment of the parts 
of the vocal instrument, nor has he relied 
entirely upon “imitation” of a tone. He 
has proceeded according to the great 
teaching principle of working by “indi¬ 
rection.” 

To bring the pupil to a correct emission 
of the voice, a pattern tone as regards a 
normally “free” quality is of great im¬ 
portance. The student’s “ear” must be 
educated to know that peculiar tonal 


viduality” by instructing him carefully 
against attempting to make his voice 
sound in all respects like the voice of his 
master. He also uses the pupil’s sight 
and his consciousness of the localization 
of vibratory sensation to assist in secur¬ 
ing the desired tonal result. 

Let us suppose the case of a pupil who 
is “poor in imitation,” as a phrenologist 
would put it. The instructor hears this 
bass singer emit what the student thinks 
is a good Ah. It has a dark, rather gut¬ 
tural sound, more like 0 in No, or Awe 
than an Ah. The instructor gives the 


“indi- quality which indicates freedom from 


rigidity in the parts of the vocal instru¬ 
ment, and he must be instructed to will 
its realization in his own voice. 

A systematic localization of the sensa¬ 
tion of tonal vibration according to the 
pitch and power of tones, is also of value 
in this work. 

But as a condition precedent to the 
possibility of such realization of the cor¬ 
rect tonal concept there must be : — 

First: Instruction of the pupil as to 
how to bring the body (particularly the 
parts of the vocal instrument) into a con¬ 
dition of “responsive freedom” or mus¬ 


cular tonicity (readiness for singing) 
without rigidity. 

Second: The strengthening and the 
control of the breathing muscles so as 
to make possible that skillful manage¬ 
ment of the breath in singing which is 
necessary if the singer is to retain said 
condition of responsive freedom when 
endeavoring to realize in his voice his 
ideal tonal concept. 

The parts of .the vocal instrument must 
not only be in a condition of responsive 
freedom, but they must be trained to take 
particular positions and make specific 
movements. This again is best accom¬ 
plished according to the principle of 
working by "indirection.” 

We may be told that by insisting long 
enough upon imitation of a perfect tone 
we shall bring about all these desirable 
conditions, adjustments and results. Why 
not “divide and conquer.” Why not 
separate the problem into its chief fac¬ 
tors and attack them in detail, rather 
than in the mass? 

Hold Fast to the Ideal 

By F. W. Wodell 

If the reader of the articles written by 
professional music critics is as yet but 
in the process of securing a vocal edu¬ 
cation through study and much concert¬ 
going, he is apt to regard the pronounce¬ 
ments of such critics as carrying the 
weight of ultimate authority. 

Here trouble arises for the vocal 
teacher. 

It is his business to teach singing — not 
howling, shrieking, or the physically la¬ 
borious, disjointed, explosive and tonally 
ugly style of the so-called “dramatic” 
vocalist, the “singer without a voice” who 
is “so great as an interpreter." - 
If a man does not sing, he is not a 
singer. If he does not exhibit a tone of 
agreeable quality and a good sostenuto 
and legato, he does not sing. 

An English professional critic recently 
declared himself “more sympathetic to 
the fine artist who struggles to express 
great and beautiful emotions through an 
ordinary voice, than to the congenitally 
stupid singer who merely uses a fine 
organ to express banal emotions, or to 
murder music of a better sort.” 

Such writing might possibly lead a 
vocal student to wrongly estimate th'e 
work of one who blats and blares, and 
chops the vocal line into little bits in the 
endeavor to “express great and beautiful 
emotions through an ordinary voice.” 

There is no excuse for one who calls 
himself a singer who exhibits constantly 
ugliness of tone. Let the man with the 
“ordinary” voice restrict himself as to 
his repertoire, and leave the expression 
of great and beautiful emotions to such 
as are gifted by nature and adequately 
prepared through artistic attainment, to 
deal therewith. 

Even Wagner, the apostle of the music- 
drama. wanted his parts sung, and he 
lamented the dearth of singers with the 
natural endowment and artistic training 
to properly sing them. 

After all. when a real singer appears 
on the professional stage, one who ex¬ 
hibits beauty of tone, good vocal tech- 






















































































































JUNE 


Page klO TEE ETUDE 


“The Crowning Attribute of Lovely 
Woman is Cleanliness” 




The Head Voice and 
Other Problems 

By D. A. CLIPPINGER Price $1.00 

“One of the most Interesting treatises upon vocal 
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BY THE SAME AUTHOR 

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Every time you move your arm, the 
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Perspiration further weakens it, besides 
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Lengthen the life of your gown or blouse 
by protecting this weakest part with 
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Composer of Cantatas. Songs. Pianoforte and Church Music 

Please mention THE ETUDE when addressing 


Dique, and the power to express feeling 
to a greater or lesser degree, without 
sacrificing tonal beauty and the singing 
style, who are quicker than the profes¬ 
sional critics to give the strongest praise 
to such an artist? In proof of which 
read their writings concerning the per- 
forfninces of such real singers as Cam- 
pailini, Jean de Reszke, Lilli Lehmann, 
Errimy .Destjnn, Olive Fremstadt, Adelini 
Patti, Marcella Sembrich, Nellie Melba, 
ana latest, Gallj-Curci, to mention but a 
few. 

Ugliness of tone and constriction of 
the vocal instrument—rigidity of feature, 
of the 'whole body, go together. This is 
not a normal condition for the singing 
voice. The modern singer must culti¬ 
vate, as a basis for emotional expression, 
tbe normal use of the vocal organ. Only 
in this. way can he expect to develop to 
thg Utmost its real powers, and prepare 


himself for greater and yet greater things 
as an interpretative artist as the years 
go by. Lilli Lehmann, for one, did this 
very thing. She sang the lighter operatic 
roles at the beginning of her career and 
for a considerable period, and finaL> 
became one of the few great sopranos 
who could and did sing and also inter¬ 
pret the most .taxing Wagnerian parts. 

Let the vocal teacher hold fast to the 
true ideal of singing—loveliness of tone, 
evenness of scale, the legato, a noble, 
intelligent treatment of the words, and 
as much emotional coloring ;and fervor 
in the "interpretation” as is possible and 
desirable, short of destroying the legato 
and sacrificing constantly the good qual¬ 
ity of the tone. The world will always 
applaud and pay for beauty of tone- 
quality, particularly when combined with 
art in the use of the voice. 


Certain Lessons from the Past 

By F. W. Wodell 


Pier Francesco Tosi, a great Italian 
Teacher of singing, born about 1647, 
published a book, Observations on the 
Florid Song, in Bologna, in 1723. An 
edition in English was published in 
London in 1905. 

Mancini, another celebrated Italian 
professor of singing, born in 1741, pub¬ 
lished the third and revised edition of 
his book, Observations on the Figurative 
Art of Singing, in Milan, in 1777. An 
edition in English was published in 
America. This was made from a trans¬ 
lation prepared by Pietro Buzzi, of Los 
Angeles, from original manuscripts dis¬ 
covered by him in Italy, after several 
years’ search. 

These two books contain, probably, 
most of what is certainly known of the 
wiSdom and practice of the “Ancients” 
who sang and taught in what is com¬ 
monly now called “the golden age of 
singing.” We have had a good deal of 
writing, of late, about the “Old Italian 
method,” and certain of the statements 
put forth have the appearance at least 
of being no stronger than mere infer¬ 
ences, Which may or may not be fully 
justified. 

The authors above named were'in a 
position to know the facts. It would be 
a good thing if every vocal teacher and 
most advanced vocal students would 
read and carefully study both these 
works. 

It is curious how history repeats itself. 
Afiiong gatherings of professional vocal 
teachers to-day, when “shop” is talked, 
one of the most common topics is the 
prevalence of bad vocal teaching, par¬ 
ticularly by instrumentalists who are not 
trained singers. Tosi isays upon this 
point: 

“There are nowadays as many masters 
as there are professors of music in any 
kind. * * * So mischievous a pre¬ 
tention. prevails not only among those 
vvho can barely be said to sing, but among 
the meanest instrumental performers; 
who, though they never sung, nor know 
how to sine, pretend not only to teach, 
but to perfect, and find some what are 
weak enough to be imposed on.”: . 

And again: 

“One who has not a good ear should 
not undertake either to instruct or to 
sing. * * * I can truly say that, ex¬ 
cept in some few professors (teachers) 
modern intonation is very had.” 

Mancihi remarks: 

“Another great disadvantage results 
from the fact that, in this present day, 
there are many presuming to teach- the 


art of singing who in truth never learned 
the rules. * * * They believe it suffi¬ 
cient to merely be able to play the violin 
or the cembalo to be competent to train 
a voice. * * * They make their pu¬ 
pils yell with all the strength of their 
lungs. They spoil beautiful voices be¬ 
cause they do not know how to show 
them how to produce and unfold them. 
We hear unevenness of registers, singing 
out of pitch, voices in the throat and 
total loss of voice, because these teachers 
pretend that they ought to perform with 
their voices just as they perform with 
the fingers on their respective instru¬ 
ments. How will it be possible for such 
teachers to create new, good singers.” 

There were, of course, excellent teach¬ 
ers in those days; otherwise we should 
not have the records existent of the 
artistic attainments of certain vocalists 
of that time. 


regard to “Method,”—that word whic 
seems to fascinate the average voce 
S tudent? 

Tosi says very little. He advise 
against “noisy breath-taking” and empha 
sizes the importance of singing the word 
“so as to be understood.” But there is 
whole “Method” wrapped up in those tw 
statements. For a “noisy,” labore 
breath-taking will result in an uncon 
trolled sending out of the breath in sing 
ing, with all of its attendant evils; whil 
to sing “so as to be understood” ( sing 
me-, with the ancients, meant sustainin 
and binding tones as a fundamental mat 
ter as shown by the type of music used 
involves freedom of the pronouncin; 
organs and this means “free throat,” fo 
a tight” throat is always accompanie. 
by an embarrassment of the organs in 
volved in pronunciation. Hence the say 
mg, credited to some “Old Italian” mas 
ter of singing: “He who can breath, 
well, and pronounce well, can sing well. 1 

Mancini goes somewhat more inti 
detail concerning his “Method” or systen 
■of training. Asserting that “Upon th. 
opening of the mouth depends the clear 
S of the voice.’ he refers to the de 
fects of tone caused hy opening th. 
month too widely, or not sufficiently o 
with a round form” with th#» 
brought “forward * * * aImr ^ . 

,hei, lip,-; . Mch p „, ilioo 
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general custom of the Old Italian teach¬ 
ers. He makes also an appeal to the eye. 
He says: “In giving the precise rules to 
a student, let the teacher not only tell 
him and explain to him, but let him illus¬ 
trate his meaning by making himself an 
example, by assuming the different posi¬ 
tions of the mouth, the wrong as well as 
the right position, in order that the stu¬ 
dent may see and also hear the corre¬ 
sponding tone which comes from the cor¬ 
responding position.” 

The danger of relying blindly upon 
"imitation” in teaching was recognized 
by Mancini, who says: “Singers must 
always pay attention not to acquire that 
common fault of imitating too closely 
what they see and hear; for instead of 
improving their natural gifts, they will 
often lose them. However, I do not 
mean to exclude imitation, because by 
imitating the perfect in music, using sane 
judgment and modifications suitable to 
one’s own particular talent, one perfects 
Himself.” 

That there is an art of managing the 
breath for singing (and therefore some¬ 
thing to be learned) was recognized by 
Mancini, who said: “One must acquire, 
through study, the art to con^efve ho d 
save, and retake the breath, with perfect 
ease Withdut such an acquisition, no 
agility of any kind can be performed. 

There are still extant vocal instructors 
who pooh-pooh the study of breath- 
control,” and tell their pupils to breathe 
naturally,” and let the matter end there. 
With the result, in cases of which the 
writer has personal knowledge, that the 
voice is thin, pinched, and deprived ot 


its natural agility and beauty. That there 
is too much fuss made by some abqut 
"How to Breathe” for singing is equally 
true The subject should be presented 
and worked out in a simple way. Prop¬ 
erly speaking, the singer does not take 
breath”—it takes possession of him, when 
he stands correctly in what has been 
called “singer’s position,” and wills a 
feeling of light, easy expansion in the 
lower chest (.front, back and sides), the 
upper chest being well up without strain 
at the start, and the bony framework 
thereof remaining practically quiet 
throughout the inhalation. In the end, 
with the artist, the taking of “singers 
position” and the thought "I am about to 
sing” will result in the proper filling of 
the lungs for the effort to be made. 
The retention of the easy, high position 
of the upper chest facilitates the grad¬ 
uated, controlled, skilfully managed 
sending out of the breath with slowness 
and steadiness, and with those varying 
pressures required for tones °f differ¬ 
ent pitch, tone-color and degree of force. 

In some cases, the muscles involved in 
breathing for singing have to be 
strengthened and made more responsive. 
This can be done by simple breathing 
gymnastics, without thought at the mo¬ 
ment of breathing for singing. The 
body thus prepared can be trained to 
respond to the will for inhaling and 
exhaling as required for singing. In al 
departments of v 9 cal teaching the most 
valuable thought is “Teaching by Indi¬ 
rection,” so that attempts at direct local 
muscular control, with the inevitable 
resulting rigidity, are avoided. 


Doing Justice to the Vowels 

By F. W. Wodell 


Treat the vowels well, and they will 
treat you well. Take the much abused 
vowel E as in See. How many vocal 
students have said that they «nnot sing 
a good tone on that vowel, particularly 
at a high pitch? 

Yet one of the first rank tenors of the 
Paris Grand Opera exhibited his tone 
of best quality on that very vowel. It is 
a rich, stirring, carrying vowel, when 
rightly treated. It must have room to 
round itself, however, a sort of double 
resonance .cavity, one in the front and 
one in the back of the mouth, to show 
its best characteristics. With the jaw 
well dropped, and hanging loosely, the 
tongue-tip close against the lower front 
teeth, and the substance of the tongue 
at the back entirely free from rigidity, 
and the breath under control, one can 
have a beautiful rich E. And if the jaw 


be loosely dropped a little more and the 
tongue left of itself to roll forward on 
its tip .loosely, progressively, as the pitch 
rises, the individuality of the E can be 
preserved and as well it can be kept rich 
and of good “carrying power.” But if 
the tongue and jaw be in the least set 
and the face wears a grin instead of a 
smile—you may have an E, but you will 
have a very disagreeable sound, and it 
will be increasingly difficult to sing as 
the pitch rises. 

Strangely enough one may have the 
feeling in the neck and the back mouth 
as though breathing out very slowly and 
steadily an Ah—the mother vowel while 
singing this beautiful E. And the higher 
one sings, the lower in the neck one 
should will this “Ah” sensation. This 
adds to the deep rich quality of all the 
vowels, but particularly of E, and of A 
as in “fate.” 


How Not to Do It 


Referring to certain “Song-Reciters, 
all too common in this country, a New 
York newspaper critic, in a clever de¬ 
scription pf “How Not to Do It,” says: 

“Some have abundant voice and some 
have plentiful technic. But unfortu¬ 
nately understanding seems to be too fre¬ 
quently absent. Again there at;« those 
who obstinately refuse to sacrifice them¬ 
selves to the noble duty of respecting the 
composer, but prefer to celebrate their 
own petty glories. They have a wonder¬ 
ful command of breath and for the sake 
of exhibiting this they phrase extrava¬ 
gantly. Or they can make startling ex¬ 
plosions on certain tones and they make 


them without regard for fitness. Or they 
can deliver a whispering pianissimo 
which dies away into nothingness, no one 
knows just when, and so every song 
terminates with this effect, no matter 
what the musical cadence or the poetic 
sentiment. * * * There is yet another 

variety of song reciter, namely, the one 
who arranges a program of numbers 
comprising songs profoundly tragic, ten¬ 
derly pathetic, archly playful, or gently 
humorous and then proceeds to deliver 
them all as if they were made on the 
same last. This sort of song reciter is 
the most difficult of all, for she never 
can be made to realize that she is not as 
eloquent as a violin.” 


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Page 4. 12 THE ETUDE 


JUNE 19i 8 


Department for Organists 


Edited for June by Frederick Maxson 

The eloquent organ waits foi the 


ster to waken the s p i r i t.”—D 0 L E 


Some Qualifications of a Church Organist 

By Frederick Maxson, F.A.G.O., A.R.C.O. 


The word organist formerly had but 
one reference, as instruments were to be 
found only m churches; and the work of 
the organist was confined to his activities 
in playing for the services of the church 
or in the giving of organ recitals in the 

chanveH >’ T 1Um - BUt “ things have 
changed, and we must now discriminate 
between the theatre organist, concert 
organist, and church organist; although 
it is quite possible.for one and the same 
person t° acceptably fill all three positions, 
it he has the time. 

In these modern times tfie opportunities 
of the organist have been broadened very 
considerably, and players of' spjendid' 
ability and distinguished reputations may 
now be found playing the organ at motion 
picture theatres, with no lowering of their 
own musical standards, but with "a-big 
uplift ,n the standards of the first class 
theatres, whose patrons are entitled to the 
best m mus ic. Indeed, theatre layi 
calls for equal ability and more versatility 
than any other field for the organist as 
soloist. He must here sense the ever- 
changing mood of the picture, suiting his 
selections and interpretations to the need 
of the moment. In the best theatres he 
has an occasional opportunity to play a 
concert number, either as organ solo or 
in connection with an orchestra, while the 
screen is blank. This should be, and is, a 
means of educating the public to the 
appreciation of the better class of music; 
and in the hands of a conscientious or¬ 
ganist of ability is a wonderful oppor¬ 
tunity, both for himself and his audience. 

This brings us to the mention of the 
concert organist, of whom w© have a 
large and increasing number of worthy 
representatives in this country. His is 'a 
constantly growing field, distinctly his 
own; for he is free to make his selection 
of pieces to be played, according to his 
ability as a player, the size of the organ, 
and his own taste (and that-of his audi¬ 
ence) without reference to any illustrative 
element, such as constantly claims the 
attention of a theatre organist, when play¬ 
ing for the pictures. Here then is a great 
chance for an organist as an educator of 
the public taste for organ music, of 
which our great players have fully availed 
themselves. Think of the magnificent 
organs which have been installed in vari¬ 
ous municipalities of our country and 
more already contracted for, presided 
over by organists of the highest rank, 
where the lover of good organ music has 
an increasing privilege of hearing, knbvv- 
ing, and learning to love the greatest 
music, whether written in the idiom of 
the organ, or in the form 'of a transcrip¬ 
tion. Orchestral and other music is fre¬ 
quently improved in effect through the 
medium of the organ, as certain passages 
become clearer in detail : and the wonder¬ 
ful sonority of a mammoth organ eclipses 


carh 0 m,!7K a great climaxes - Much 
care must be exercised, however, in the 

the orZ° in'"" 51 ' 0 t0 bC transc " bed *r 
he triad ’ rr' nC ^ 3 great d ea I °I it cannot 
hearse ! ffectlve ' Audiences who may 
bear the fine programs of such men as 
Hemroth. Macfarlane, Jepson, and Stew- 
on their splendid instruments, hav* a 
rare and enviable treat. 

The church organist is, in a sense in 
class by himself; his music must mke a 
different appeal, and there are no pTctures 
or annotations, to assist in understanding 
g0lng further - let me make a 
plea: for the much maligned woman organ - 
•s . In teaching a large number of pupils 
of both sexes, covering a period of years, 
have found the woman organist fre- 
querttly to be quite as capable as her 
brother pupil. She can and does fill a 
church position we", and is perhaps more 
faithful and painstaking. Then why this 
unfortunate prejudice in the minds of the 
mus, c in so many churches, 

where a woman organist is not even 
allowed to show what she can do? 

The successful work of many women 
organists who are holding church posi¬ 
tions ls a re f u t at i on of the „ nfounded 

prejudice against them. The time may 
very shortly come when the exigencies of 
the war will require the filling 0 f vacan- 
rlrily W ° men ° rganists ' at leas ‘ tempo- 


Organ Meditation, a quiet piece played 
just before the sermon, as the Meditation 
always helped him, the clergyman, in his 
sermon. This is a tribute to the influ¬ 
ence of organ music in the service. The 
congregation in the same church appre¬ 
ciates the Organ Meditation as a devo¬ 
tional aid. 

We novv come to a further discussion of 
qualifications of a church organ¬ 
ist,” noting some of the, additional points 
that make for his success : 


Virtuosity ? 

To return to the question of the church 
organist as a class. He may utilize to 
advantage all the good points found in the 
work of the other two classes; bringing 
them to bear effectively in his work as 
so o organist, or in accompanying. As 
soloist there need be no limit to his tech- 
mcal proficeney and interpretative power. 

.° U 1 e even be a virtuoso, his church 
solo playing will make still more of an 
appeal, and his knowledge of instrumental 
resources and effects will add an interest 
to his choir accompaniments not to be 
found in the playing of his less highly 
developed brother organist. Nothing is of 
too high a character to use in the service 
of the Lord s house. A well planned and 
well executed organ recital ot the right 
md of music is a good preparation on 
the part of the listener for the church 
service which is to follow; putting him 
into a receptive mood. In fact the organ¬ 
ic has a great opportunity in so planning 
all his music for each service, that the 
mood or atmosphere of both choir and 
organ music may lead to and be in sym¬ 
pathy with the predominant thought of 
the sermon, which is the culmination of 
the entire service; being triumphant, 
tender or vigorous as occasion may re¬ 
quire. One clergyman recently told his 
organist that he always regretted the occa¬ 
sional omission of the playing of the 


Personality 

A church organist should be a conse¬ 
crated Christian gentleman, of good 
strong character, capable of making itself 
felt in the right direction; and a man 
thoroughly in sympathy with the ideals of 
his church, spiritually, as well as mu¬ 
sically. He should have good habits and 
an agreeable and winning personality, and 
be careful of his personal appearance. He 
should also be somewhat of a diplomat. 
His interests in his work and his intimate 
connection with it must be real, not assum¬ 
ed ; for we all realize the subtle influence 
which emanates unconsciously from each 
individual; which if not arrayed on the 
right side, would give the organist power 
to counteract to a great extent the most 
telling pulpit utterances, through lack of 
genuine sympathy and wholehearted co¬ 
operation with the minister. The re¬ 
ligious preferences of an organist should 
not be so decided that they are diametric¬ 
ally opposed to the prevailing views of 
pastor and people, in the main ; for this 
would constitute an insuperable barrier to 
successful work in the highest sense; 
which no amount of talent or ability 
could overcome. The church player 
should also have an approachable person¬ 
ality. showing a readiness to listen to and 
accept suggestions that might be of real 
advantage to him in any department of 
his work. He should command the re¬ 
spect and confidence of all, minister, can- 
gregation, and choir. 

This point has been touched upon abo 
It is impossible for the church organist 
to be too well equipped as a player • for 
he can make use of all his resources’and 
skill in making the organ effective to the 
highest degree. He should be thoroughly 
schooled in organ playing in all styles 
from the foundation to as much profic- 
lency as possible; becoming familiar with 
the work of Bach, Mendelssohn, Rhein- 
and others of the older school; 
and also those of Guilmant. Widor Du- 
bois v ,erne, and many later composers of 
ability The study of the Rink Organ 
School will give him a foundation of 
solidity and dignity, leading to the clas¬ 
sics; while in Lemmens’ admirable School 

French^” fc® 1" ^ ‘ nwards the brilliant 
French School; acquiring the clearness 
and dash so necessary in the playing of 


modern organ music. To this study must 
be added a judicious selection from the 
best ,n all organ literature, not forgetting 
the American composer. Our list of 
American writers is constantly enlarging • 
and the compositions of some of them 
will bear favorable comparison with those 

form” 7 H I SCh ° 01 ’ b ° th 35 ‘° conte "‘. 

form, development and effectiveness 

Much of organ literature of all schools 
can be drawn upon for church work 
The organist should acquire a sense of 
the instrumental tone colors most appro¬ 
priate for use in the various phases 

panS W ° rk " SOl ° iSt ° r Ch ° ir 
The adapting of piano accompaniments 
or of piano reductions from the orchestral 
score requires considerable skill and in¬ 
sight, also a general knowledge of the 
manner in which orchestral scores are put 
together; and a practical use of harmony. 
Among other points in adapting accom- 
paniments three must be kept fn 2d; 
rhythm harmonic support, and effective¬ 
ness of the organ. This will mean in 
many cases practically rearranging the 
Ptano accompaniment, changing position 
of chords, using pedals with discretion, 
etc One organist comes to mind, a ca- 
pab!e player and a good musician, who 
insisted m playmg his accompaniments to 
the oratorios exactly as given in the 
Piano score; forgetting that this same 
accompaniment had been considerably 
changed from ,ts original orchestral form. 
His singers claimed that they received no 
if H ’ S playing ’ conscientious as 

. Hls fbythms were not marked, 

and s Up port ed by harmonies and proper 

Pedals as suggested above. Three very 
serviceab'e books on adaptations of piano 
accompaniments may be obtained viz- 
n,T at T S , Ch0ir Accompaniment, by 
Dr n -a UCk ' ° rgan Accompaniment, bv 
Dr Bridge; and (possibly best of all) 
bnef and very Practical little book, 
f /o' ° rgan Accompaniment, by Clif- 
eZr, DemarCSt ' A " ambitiou * onanist 
cannot do better than prepare himself for 
the examinations of the American Guild 
o Organ,sts, whose certificates represent 
success in just the kind of work in which 
a church organist should be proficient. 

rrrr ,s ° f great p^ai v^e 

°j be , Cburch organist. This should be 

sTort m^,°f rOUg I; ,y - b ° ,h " exp,oiting 3 
motif, and in developing a short 

acceoteH >tU , COrnP ° Sit, ° nS ’ wording to the 
the P d ^ 65 ° f musical form. Consult 
Improvisation, by Sawyer. 
There are times in the church service 
previnncT US,Ca , re f erence to something 
great * if 11 ." 8 ' n tbe same service is of 
great psychological and spiritual effect. 

otient? g °°- d t ', rnely Im Provisation will fre- 
set com SU v the m ° ment ^tter than any 
set composition could possibly do. 


THE ETUDE Page h 13 


JUNE 1918 



William C. Carl 

TEAOHES THE 

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Special Preparation as Choir 
Conductor 

The remarks which follow assume that 
the organist is also director of his choir. 
The assignment of the work to a separate 
organist and choirmaster may perhaps 
give each more freedom in the carrying 
out of his own work. But the advantages 
are quite apt to be overbalanced by the 
disadvantages, of which one quite impor¬ 
tant is the difficulty of securing two men 
who have equal or nearly equal musical 
ability. A good organist would not care 
to work under a choirmaster who was not 
as good a musician as himself, and one 
apt to handicap his work by making im¬ 
practicable, suggestions; so taking it all 
together it seems that when both positions 
are combined in the hands of one capable 
person, results are more homogeneous. A 
fine organist may, however, be. an indif¬ 
ferent choir conductor, and vice versa; 
but when an accomplished player is also 
capable as a choir conductor, splendid 
results are obtainable, with the right vocal 
material. 

The would-be choir conductor should 
study the voice as to tone-production and 
natural vocal limitations, so that he may 
not ask for nor expect impossible vocal 
results. Most choir singers have studied 
the voice more or less, and will respect 
the suggestions of a choirmaster who dis¬ 
plays a knowledge of the voice and vocal 
effects. 

If the choir conductor could himself 
become a member of a choral body pre¬ 
sided over by a competent conductor he 


would be surprised and delighted at the 
number of points he can obtain to. utilize 
in his own work. He is free to follow and 
criticize the work of each part at re¬ 
hearsal, note the remarks and corrections 
of the conductor, and profit by them, with¬ 
out any responsibility on his part, until he 
comes to apply them in his own choir 
work. 

Concentration 

At the console of the organ, during the 
service, the church organist must concen¬ 
trate his attention every moment, tie 
must be ready to assist soloists in any 
slips them may make, support tne choir 
should they flatten or sing incorrectly; 
improvise to connect one part of the serv¬ 
ice with the next, particularly in a ritual¬ 
istic service; and to do many other things. 
For this reason the playing of his instru¬ 
ment must become a second nature to him. 
so that he may be ready at a moment’s 
notice for any demand that may arise in 
the service. Few listeners have any ade¬ 
quate idea of the amount of strain to 
which an organist is subjected during 
even a plain non-liturgical service; espe¬ 
cially when all goes smoothly as the result 
of his concentration and foresight. It is 
no small item even to have the place 
found and the next page ready, at the 
proper time, and the organ registration 
prepared; to say nothing of the respon¬ 
sibility of the choir work. He must have 
every effect in mind in advance; for the 
finest choir singing can be spoiled by a 
lack of readiness or correctness on the 
part of the organist. 


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As the phrasing of most organ music 
published to-day is carefully marked, it 
is assumed that the points suggested be¬ 
low are to be applied only in cases where 
no phrasing appears, or where a different 
phrasing seems to be called for, in ac¬ 
cordance with the dictates of good taste. 
The particular instrument upon which 
one is playing, the size of the auditorium, 
speed of movement, and degree of power 
will all tend to modify the touch. Loud 
chords, for example, played on a large 
or^an in a spacious auditorium may re¬ 
quire to be held perhaps a quarter of* 
their length, to prevent the resonance of 
the room from blurring them. Also, 
staccato heavy pedals should be played 
quite short under such conditions. 

A well-equipped modern organist 
must at all times have a perfect legato 
touch at his command, which is the 
foundation touch for all his playing. 
But the undeviating use of this touch be¬ 
comes monotonous, as the ear demands 
variety, which serves to lend contrast and 
effectiveness ' '' “* 


Si UDY HARMONY 
and COMPOSITION 

by MAIL aSS®4*TYS?! 


3. Two staccato notes before an ac¬ 
cented note of longer value are effective 


4. Staccato notes in a fugue subject 
give it variety, and help to identify its 
various entrances:— 





1. At the end of a phrase, 


New Organ Music “On Sale’’ 

Th; “On Sale" Plan offers organist;an ewetmonal 
^nmusi'c. tJ A°ew'ma°l packages will be sent with¬ 
out obligation to purchase on , 0 'yir 
and a postal card will stop the service at anytime. 

THEO. PRESSER CO., Philadelphia, Pa. 


5. A short staccato may he used to ad- 
-■ - . . . . . vantage, as a help in phrasing a passage 

vat .cry, —. —’ves to end contrast and consisting entirely of repeated notes ; thus 

effectiveness to the playing. Various hasizing the beginning of the succeed- 
touches may be used for this purpose, 
most important of which is the half or ing gro p 
demi-staccato, which may be used in the ^ 

following ways : ^ ^ |'» * * | f * f | jT- | 


Here the third note of each measure is 
played short staccato, the others half 
staccato. . 

6. The demi-staccato is well adapted to 
the playing of chords, which are to be 
sounded distinctly:— 

7. M. Guilmant taught the use of the 
demi-staccato in repeated notes, in poly¬ 
phonic music:— 


r before a note or chord, for accent 


2. Another use of demi-staccato is as 
a contrast, when repeating a passage pre¬ 
viously played legato; 


Recent Pipe 
Organ Pieces 

By Popular Writers 

14772. Frynngur. J. Frank.. . Moonlight 

14964. Sheppard. E. H...-.^Poahnfeib D 
14990. Warner. F. H.. Allegro con Spirito 

* V '*nd o“iSTate , 4i , «taj‘y-' 1 ' 1 

15033. Pease, S. G. .. - Anniversary March 

Tuneful and spirited, a food teaching 

15018. Mauro-Cottone, M.. Marcia Festiva 
15094. Sheppard. E. H Allegro Pomposo 


15148. Stults. R. M.. 
15204. Schuler. G. S... 


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. Postlude in G 


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Page £4 THE ETUDE 

This did not apply to long notes, 01 
repeated notes in a melodic passage ir 
modern music:— 

10 th ' S exam P ,e < tHe first note 
(U flat) would be released just in time 
to repeat. The finger should follow the 
key as it rises from'the first note, readv 
to repeat. * 

1 , 8 '. Pedal notes are frequently quite ef- 
I fective when played demi-staccato :— 


suggesting the pizzicato of the ’cello and 
ta*" ° f "" F«»Wck 


Special Methods in Practicing 
Hymn Tunes on the Organ 

M UCH practical benefit may be derived 
from the study of- hymn-tunes in the 
ways here suggested, in addition to any 

student meth ° dS that may ° CCUr to th * 
1. Play the hymn on the Swell Organ, 
with expression, without pedals. Some 
Payers follow the plan of striking each 

while rh T 6 Soprano and Tenor, 
while the Alto and Bass hold them for 
their combined length as a contrast:_ 


as whiIe the ri ^ ht P Ia 'y* ‘he 

1 dnor and Bass. This is a splendid study 
tor developing concentration and inde¬ 
pendence of the hands, which are quite 
apt to go entirely wrong until the knack is 
acquired. 

6. Play the entire hymn with right 
hand and pedals, and with left hand and 
pedals; the hand playing chords of three 
notes. When a chord cannot be spanned 
with one hand as written, it may be modi¬ 
fied by playing the Tenor one octave 
higher, or filling out the chord. Some 
practical knowledge of Harmony is neces¬ 
sary this and some of the other meth¬ 
ods suggested. 

7. This is .an addition to the last 
method, and consists in adding stops to 
the Swell and Pedal organs in order with 
the left hand while playing chords with 
the right; also adding Great and Pedal 
stops with the right hand while playing 
chords with the left. Practice also, put¬ 
ting off stops in the proper order 
& Play full chords in each hand, the 
right played an octave higher, the pedals 
m oetaves if possible. Sometimes the 
right hand in octaves instead of full 
chords. 

9 - An exhaustive study of hymn tunes 
should be made, playing with the expres¬ 
sion and degree of power suitable to the 
sense of the words. This will call for 
considerable registration of manuals and 
pedal?.— Frederick Maxson 


JUNE 



2. Play the Soprano and Alto with the 
right hand, the Tenor with the left and 
the Bass with the feet, with the same at¬ 
tention to repeated notes. Play the Bass 
as written, avoiding extremely high or 
low notes on the pedals; using a melodi¬ 
ous interval when skipping to the octave 
higher or lower than written:— 



Here all the notes except those marked 
* may be played either as written, or an 
octave lower. 


Here notes marked'.* should be played 
as written, not an octave lower, the first 
E either high or low. 

3. Play the Soprano on a solo stop, Alto 
and Tenor on an accompanying keyboard, 
Bass with pedals at written pitch, coupled 
to the accompanying keyboard. Variety 
may be sought for in the quality of tone 
of the solo stop, fdaying the melody 
sometimes on one keyboard, sometimes 
on the other. It may also be played in 
octaves. 

4. Transpose the hymn a half or whole 
tone up and down, playing with or with¬ 
out pedals. Transposition, by Warriner, 
may be a help in this study. 

5. Play without pedals, hands reversed; 
the left hand playing the Soprano and 


Cooperation Between Minister 
and Organist 

The organist should endeavor to work 
in harmony with the minister, who; if a 
man wise in his day and generation, will 
undoubtedly defer to the musical judg- 
i of an organist in whom he has per¬ 

fect confidence. Nothing is more' de¬ 
structive to the best success of. the 
organist in his church music than a spirit 
of rivalry between the minister and~him- 
self, or a feeling of superiority on the 
part of a minister who may be short¬ 
sighted atid masterful enough to insist 
on the carrying ol ,t of his suggeitions 
because of his position. I once knew of 
a clergyman who was incensed because 
the organist did not favor the attempt 
to carry out a suggestion he made, which 
was. no less than that of having the 
entire congregation sing Handel's Halle¬ 
lujah Chorus! Think of the twisted up 
leads in this magnificent composition 
which would result from the singing of a 
congregation that may not sing even simple 
hymn tunes rhythmically. A new style 
of cqunterpoint (not worthy of imita¬ 
tion) would certainly have developed 
from such a performance! In this’case 
the refusal of the organist was looked 
upon as insubordination, without consid- 
, Cnn . g j hat !? e was P° sted a s to the prac¬ 
tical difficulties in the way of carrying 
out such a suggestion. The ideal plan 
is for minister and organist to discuss 
in a friendly and mutually interested way 
the various items that come up for son- 
sideration, each being desirous only of 
producing the best practical legitimate 
results, and not of “carrying his point.” 

In this way the experience of eadh is 
brought to bear helpfully, and it is im¬ 
possible to overestimate the benefit the 
congregation will derive from' services 
whose efficiency and appeal have been 
careftdly; arranged for'by'friendly con¬ 
sultations bf this soft between clergy¬ 
man and organist, where each has given 
of his best thought. The clergyman who 
is somewhat educated in music can co¬ 
operate more intelligently with the or¬ 
ganist, but it is to be hoped that the min- 
ister who emphatically has no musical 
education will be aware of the fact, be 
open to legitimate suggestions and not ex¬ 
pect impossibilities.— Frederick Maxson. 


E 1 


WHY CAN’T YOU 
GET THE RECORDS 
YOU DESIRE? 

There are many contributing causes but 
most of these can be avoided if you 

Order Your Records by Mail 

Owing to a most comprehensive stock and expert 
knowledge of just what the music lover wants, the 

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THE THEO. PRESSER CO. 

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to obtain the records that you desire. 


EACH SELECTION IN THE LIST BELOW 

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standpoint and every music lover will 
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Number Title 

T . . , .. Ce "° ^olo by Rosarto Bourdon ( * 75 

Ideal,zed dance forms, frequently heird in recitals 

^iBSKfsawisa!--; » 

Brilliant whistling solos, recorded' with istonUhW da r £ 

17302 I Washington Post March. 

(El Capstan March. .. Sousa’s Santtj n 

60031 Italian Street u ^ ^ C ° mf, °‘ CT 

Th Ctta ’ b >' Herbert. Sung by Lucy Marsh 7S 

The most popular of light open arias. 5 

17523 | Evenm ? Chime* Carl Heins 

(Woodland Echoes Wyman ..A> apnlitan Trio) 

A delightful instrumental cbmbination in two prett d ’ . Neapolitan Trto) * 75 

74547 Four American Folk Song..“ ' "“'^7!'? ‘.T""'’' "T^' 

No one equals Maud Powell In b. ... 0,0 by Maud Towel) 1.50 

f N„ . • “1 interpretation of the good old song,. 

35133 I Nocturne m E Flat Chopin. 

(Martha Overture. . . Cello Solo by Sort in ) 

A most'arrl.t VoW Duet Gluck and Homer 2.00 

68127 Celeste Aida. * °‘ aPPM, ' ng d “«' 

The greatest of tenor, in his favorite rol. Su ”8 Pf Caruso 3.00 

Victo/RecorLraLompInie/by a C letter t d? nth ^ ? ulletin ° f New 
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s™„ E „°ER COMPANY 

1710-1712.1714 CHESTNUT ST.. PHILADIII.PHIA^'pa! 


s ETUDE When addressing o 


advertisers. 


JUNE 1918 


THE ETUDE Page 4 15 


: . ■■■: ^ '' ■ _ 




Department for Violinists 

Edited by ROBERT BRAINE 
‘If All Would Play First Violin We Could Get No Orchestra TogetherN-R. SCHUMANN h 


In Memoriam 
Henry Schradieck 

By Robert Braine 


The death of Henry Schradieck, a 
violinist, violin teacher and writer of 
technical works for the violin, of inter¬ 
national fame, is announced. Mr. Schra¬ 
dieck died at his home in Brooklyn, 
March 25th, of heart disease, at the age 
of 72, and taught up to the very day of 
his death. Mr. Schradieck was born in 
Hamburg, Germany, in 1846. His first 
violin teacher was his father, and he 
afterwards studied with Ferdinand David 
in Leipsic, and with Leonard, at Brus¬ 
sels. He taught for several years at the 
Moscow Conservatory, in Russia, and at 
the Leipsic Conservatory, in Germany, 
during which time he directed the fa¬ 
mous Gewandhaus Orchestra in Leipsic. 

He then came to the United States, where 
he became the head of the violin de¬ 
partment of the Cincinnati College of 
Music, and directed the Cincinnati Sym¬ 
phony Orchestra. For the past few 
years he has taught violin classes in New 
York, Brooklyn and at the Combs Con¬ 
servatory, in Philadelphia. 

Mr. Schraedieck has been active in 
musical affairs in the United States for 
almost thirty-five years, during which 
time he has formed many violin pupi’s, 
many of whom have become eminent and 
are scattered all over the world as violin¬ 
ists or teachers. In his younger days he 
appeared frequently in public as a virtu¬ 
oso violinist and as a symphony con¬ 
ductor, but of late years has given his 
entire time to teaching, to editing works 
for the violin and to preparing technical 
works for the violin. Among the best 
known of these are his Scale Studies, 
Chord Studies, School of Technic for 
the Violin, and his Violin School. These 
works are widely used all over the world. 
Mr. Schradieck advocated that the be¬ 
ginners’ first studies should be m the 
key of G, as that is the natural key of 
the violin, and followed this theory in 
the preparation of his violin school. He 
edited a vast number of concertos and 
miscellaneous pieces for the violin. 

As a violinist he had qualities ot a 
high order. His intonation was perfect, 
his tone broad and noble, and his playing 
at all times showed the great musician. 
He considered himself a disciple of the 
Belgian school of violin playing. 

Mr. Schradieck was a man of remark¬ 
able force of character and of a singu¬ 
larly lovable disposition. He will be 
mourned by violinists and musicians 
throughout the United States, and indeed 
throughout the world. It is impossible 
to over-estimate the value to the cause 
of music in this country of his thirty- 
five years of arduous labor as a teacher, 


Bach’s Concerto for Two Violins, and Violin 0ct3V£-» 

the Evening Song, by Schumann, for great scientist Edison says that 

violin solo, were played by former pupils. QCtaves cannot be played perfectly in tune 
Among those who have been Mr. Qn {he violin by any violinist, however 
Schradieck’s pupils at one or another eminent> and tliat composers of music for 
time we may mention such eminent names . v j 0 {i n should not write octaves for 
as Theodore Spiering, John Dunn, Maud thg ; nstrurnen t in view of this fact. He 
'Powell, Dr. Karl Muck, Felix Wem- says that he has proved to famous violin- 
gartner and Arno Hilf, besides a great at ^ i abora tory by conclusive tests 
number of the leading violinists in ^ QCtaves cannot be played perfectly 
various American symphony orchestras. in ‘ tune 

As a composer, and more particularly Jn h; ' s conc i us i ons on the subject, there 
as an editor of works for the violin, Mr. doubt tbat Mr. Edison is both 

Schradieck gained some distinction, but ’ and wfong He is right in the as- 

he is even better known by his technical serUon that a difficult passage in octaves 
studies, which are widely used and highly cannot , )e played j n absolute mathemat- 
valued by violin teachers. He was also ^ correct intonation; but he ii 
the author of an excellent method tor m ; nu te deviatii 


tne auinor oi an 

beginners, entitled The First Position. 



Henry Schradieck. 


in his view that the minute deviation from 
absolutely correct intonation, present 
when the octaves are played by a great 
technician, is so great that it prevents 
octave playing on the violin from giving 
pleasure to an audience, and that conse¬ 
quently octaves should not be written for 
the violin. 

Paintings and drawings by great artists 
undoubtedly lack the mechanical accuracy 
of a blue print, drawn by an engineer or 
professional draughtsman, or of the 
camera, or an architest’s plan, but most 
of us would prefer the free-hand work 
of the great artist to the mechanical ac¬ 
curacy of the scientific draughtsman. Mr. 
Edison might also have found that if 
lie had applied his tests to many passages 
in single notes, he would have found 
many of them slightly inaccurate as re¬ 
gards absolutely perfect intonatidn, even 
when played by eminent violinists. From 
this, with the same reasoning, it might 
be urged that only the very simplest pas¬ 
sages be written for the violin, and dif¬ 
ficulties left out altogether. Even the 
best violinists play single notes noticeably 
out of tune occasionally in passages of 
extreme difficulty. 

The test of the matter is whether oc¬ 
taves and extremely difficult passages 
give pleasure to the hearer, and assist the 
' creating a great violin * “ 


other famous violin compositions, and it 
must be admitted that much of the charm 
would be gone. 

Octave Difficulties 

The difficulties of good octave playing 
are very great, and only violinists with a 
sound technic should essay difficult oc¬ 
tave passages. Such passages are only 
met with, as a rule, in solo violin play¬ 
ing, for when composers of orchestra 
music write octave passages of any dif¬ 
ficulty, they mark the passages divisi; that 
is, “divided,” that one-half of the violin¬ 
ists should play only the higher, and the 
other half the lower notes of the octave. 
In solo works with difficult octave pas¬ 
sages, it is also better for violinists of 
limited technic to play single notes, for 
octave passages must be played in reason¬ 
ably good intonation to give any pleasure 
whatever. 

The chief difficulty in playing octaves 
comes from the fact that as the finger¬ 
board is ascended the intervals lie closer, 
bringing the fingers constantly closer to¬ 
gether. The octave player must have the 
skill of a juggler and the finest mechani¬ 
cal precision in advancing each finger at 
the constantly diminishing ratio. 

Octave work, at least in its arpeggio 
form, should begin early; that is, as soon 
as the pupil has acquired some facility 
in the first five positions. Both fingers 
should be kept on the strings, except 
when necessary to pass to the next two 
strings, and the passage from one octave 
to the next should be made neatly and 
rapidly. Care must be taken not to slide 
the fingers slowly from one octave to 
another so as to produce a drawling 
sound. 

The scales, major and minor, and the 
chromatic scale form the best octave ex¬ 
ercises. It is advisable to practice them 
in arpeggio form at first, as in the fol¬ 
lowing : 


The War and Violin Strings 

0» of .1,0 largest manufacturers of «= .. 

gut violin strings in this country makes uditnC e, even although the intona- 

the following announcement: Present " e a " a Q be erfect from a strictly 
acute conditions mean zn unmedtate standpoint> where the last vi- 

advance m price. The 0 reat war is bration }s counte d. There is not the 
directly and indirectly the cause of a se: - do ubt that such passages do give 

ous shortage: .r.gut strings TJe.mported shg^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

strings which formerly flooded this c 0 un- P therwise eminent compoS ers would not 
try have ceased to be shipped here. A filfcd thejr violin compositions with 

tremendous quant^■ o ^ gut: is bang used h s ; ra i lar difficulties for the last 

for surgical purposes abroad. The high d d or sa So Mr. Edison is 

\ 0,, 1 k T^'X)™ Z”r?,Ho7g«. i »“houf doubt aci.ntificall, right, and 
jSSSS?'* 1 * emotionally aud ,«i..i.ai, y wrong in b,a 

Urge and increasing number, of vio- „f all octave 

paSrfrom .be fifera.nre o, .be vio- 
t y ’ rw nf the Chicago packing Hn, and many of the great works would 
h uses has^ separate lose much of their charm. Octave pas- 

Ltesrine's of sh/ep are used 7s a by-prod- sages give breadth and when 

uct in the manufacture of gut violin properly played. Think of cutting ® 
strings It is likely that the domestic vio- the octaves in the Second Concerto of 
strings it y Wieniawski, the F Sharp Minor Concerto 

hn string has come o stay anc that ,n Srhubert-Wilhelmj Ave 


£####• 

Another useful exercise (Fig. 2) is 
where the notes of the octave chord are 
played first separately and then together. 
The object of this is that the student can 
correct the position of his fingers if the 
notes are out of tune, when playing them 
singly, so that the resulting octave chord 
will be in good t 


In the final exercise the notes of the 
scale are played singly in octaves. Useful 
additional exercises would be to slur the 
scales in octaves, two, four, and eight in 
one bow. 





























































































ige 41 e THE ETUDE 



f CAIITB T Long Finger Nails 

1 E veterate^foe'of^he Xhn teacher who™’ fi ^ arpeggio work of this character ’ the 
trying to give his female nimik’ j fingers must be held down as if a chord 

S-SiS S' h b tv,s A& 


iq 18 


Directory 

SCHOOLS 




The Boys' 

Magazine 


X<*>»« o, type AMERICAN “SSsSlSsr 

tfie finger nail is long or when a long couId be cited which can only be P r °P- - —_ " ?0,k 

SfiiT-KiSj'iK B»KER‘“"“-«SSSn“ 


SMf sms, tSs combs: r:sws£.~. 

iSSS DUNNING KSLSS5SS 

necessitate, but the tone will be dull and my nails cli PP ed short to play the violin op _ A SCBQOl „ 

sjtsra syxrjss rst ntias; FABRI «"«ufflnnai 

to the fingerboard with the tins the other girls’” 

5rr«s;^sftr.r.-wr hawthorne 

sibly be executed in the „ m „., tu _ ” _ vwlm students will disobey 

KRIENS ™“aSE”2“„ 
MOULTON 

When to Use the Vibrato NEW YORK ■SS&'sS'fe 


2SS£ Hie s£ 2£ 


as just the thing for the 
to a kindergarten method? 


Theo. Presser Co. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 


MAKE' 

MUSIC 

ROLLS 

LEABARJAN MFC. 


■IIP 

Beautiful Songs for Special Purposes 

THEO. PRESSER CO., Phila. 




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tomlinsons^ih 

WESTERN 


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MUSIC PRINTERS and ENGRAVERS 


NO TEACHER" 


THE ETUDE Page 417 


JUNE 1918 



the tucolor 

C SIMSON & FREY >N (InO RK 



Morceaux Classiques 
for Violin and Piano 


Arranged by Henri Strauss 



Theo. Presser Co. 

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SAVE MAGAZINE MONEY 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 




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25 cgf«Sirrte 25 « 

Send for Violin and Cello Catalogue 

MUSICIANS SUPPLY CO. 


Perspiring Fingers 


Excessive perspiration of the fingers and 
hand is one of the lions in the path of 
thousands of violinists. The perspira- 

neck of The violin* and interferes with 



Perspiring fingers are the cause 
growth in popularity of the wire Ejtring, 
which is impervious to the moisture of the 



There is hardly any one but suffers 





ir:,;;/,,, ;- 7 ^JS 32 £S & .±^3 

Musical Questions Answered 


JSSKTSSS KBS ZSSi ttSttSSSt 



“Joachim” Tested 
Gut Violin Strings 



Just Published 

AN '“ISi£ 


OLD VIOLINS 
OLD 

r Art” 

irs:, 

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VIOLIN STRIN 



The Etude 

VIOLIN STRINGS 

.jSUftJT'iJU SStEfS.12 

fBg 3 g*Kas=E= £ 







































































































































Page J f 18 THE ETUDE 



“Nature in Music." 

(Prize essay) 

A spring concert was being held in the 
forest, and all the birds, frogs and crick¬ 
ets took part. 

The first number on the program was 
a solo by the mocking-bird, and every one 
declared it was beautiful, and wished 
that she would sing again. Next was a 
quartette by the Blue-bird, Wren, Robin, 
and Red-bird, which was also much en¬ 
joyed. Then the Frogs decided it was 
their turn and started their chorus, “Jug- 
o-rum-want-some-knee-deep. They croak¬ 
ed and croaked until Miss Mocking-bird 
announced that she was thoroughly dis¬ 
gusted, and thought it time for the Frogs 
to stop, as they had no time and very little 
tune, and were spoiling the concert. 

Then she asked Mr. Cricket if he would 
kindly give them a solo. He took out his 
violin and played, while Miss Katy-did 
sang. 

“I think that song must be ‘Good¬ 
night,’” said the Wren, as she flitted 
homeward, leaving the others to do the 

Margaret Peters Lamb (age thirteen), 
Blackstone, Va. 


“Nature in Music." 

(Prize essay) 

Birds are our best musicians. They 
sing some of the prettiest songs there are. 
The song-sparrow has a beautiful song, 
resembling that of the canary,, but the 
English-sparrow gives a harsh, discordant 
note. Some birds have exceptionally good 
voices, and are very proud of them. 

For instance, a lady was walking beside 
a stream one day and heard above her a 
wonderful singer. On looking about, she 
saw him upon a branch very near. She 
began to sing an air from an opera, and 
the bird listened attentively until she had 
finished, and then broke forth in his 
sweetest trills and warbles. Again she 
sang, and again he summoned all his 
powers and gave out still more beautiful 
trills. 

Then, when he had finished, after sit¬ 
ting very still for a moment, he flaunted 
his head and flew away, as much as to 
say, “My song is far superior.” 

Mildred Wegman (age twelve), 
Kent, Ohio. 


Junior Etude Competition for June 


The Junior Etude will award three 
pretty prizes each month for the best 
original stories or essays, answers to 
puzzles, and kodak pictures on musical 
subjects.. 

.Subject for story or essay this month, 
My favorite composer, and why,” and 
must contain not more than one hundred 
and fifty words. Write 
the paper only. 


girl under fifteen years of 


Any boy w 
age may compete. 

All contributions must bear name, age, 
and address of sender, and must be sent 
to “The Junior Etude Competition,” 
1712 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, before 
the fifteenth of June. 

-The names of the winners and their 

one side of contributions will be published in the 
August issue. 


June— the very na: 
flutter! 

June always means commencements 
and graduations, and recitals and promo¬ 
tions, and winning medals and prizes 
which took the entire school year to win 

No wonder June sets one’s heart a- 
flutter! 

How do you feel about it this June? 
Do you think you have done your very 


The Joys of June 


best this year? Do you really think that 
you deserve to win a prize or be pro¬ 
moted ? Did you do well enough to make 
up for the years to come when you might 
not be able to continue your music 
studies? 

If you did, you will play well at the 
June recital, and when it is over you can 
say, I do not know how any one else 
played, but I know that I played well.” 



Let’s Make a Piano 


Musical Pictures 

The Junior Etude wants interesting 
musical photographs. As yet we have not 
had any that we could use. We will send 
you a pretty prize for any picture we 
accept and print. 


Trace these patterns on a piece of white 

Ta piece'of ^rdlolrf-abo™ ^.'vc' “ &= 

make the black keys with your pen should not be blaek, ' D c<l. but you can 

If you want a mahogany piano, us 9 a very dark red color, instead of black. 


(Dire 


bv 


“Music and Nature.” 

(Prize essay) 

There is always music in nature, whet- 
ever one may go—in the forest or moun 
tains, or across the plains to the sea- 
there is music everywhere. 

The birds in the tree-tops pour forth ' 
from their small throats beautiful melo- ■ 
dies that cannot be imitated by man It ! 
is their sign of life and happiness. 

The wind, as it whirls in the air, bends • 
the tree-boughs, and whistles an imaein- 
ary tune. 

The brook, as it flows gaily over rocks 
seems to hum a tune full of music. 

The rain, as it falls from the sky on * 
the roof and earth, sings a continuous ’ 
monotone, really a musical lullaby. 

Stalactites, found in caves are called j 
“Nature’ organs,” for if they are struck, ■• 
tunes can be produced which are very 
musical. j 

And the tiny waves of the sea, as thev v 
beat against the shore, sing a mournful 
melody. 

Marguerite Wherry (age twelve), 
Elgin, Iowa. 


Roll of Honor. 
Jennie Albertson 
Ermil Ball 
Constance Dormsler 
Jassamine Greer 
Barbara Hoffa 
Margaret Jenkins 
George Kohl 
Madelene Shaffer 
Laura Suter Smith 
Donald Williams 


Puzzles 

(The answers are musical terms) 

1. A floor of an apartment house. 

2. Twenty. 

3. Not artificial. 

4. By chance. 

5. Material for breath. 

6. A black, sticky substance. 

7- A piece, of neckwear. 

8. One of Milton’s poems. 

9. A cane. 

10. Promises to pay m three days. 

11. Strengthening medicine. 

12. To filter. 

13. Part of a lock. 

14. A topic. 

15. Remedy for fatigue. 

16. Under legal age. 

17. One set over captains. 

18. A string. 

’9. A quart. 

20. A prop. 


Mim Of Piano Pieces By Women Com- 

B oiun Album. 

Child’s Own Book, Wagner. 

Contemporary Organ Player. 

Pe Beriot’s Method for the Violin, 

part 1. 

Lost, a Comet—Operetta, Geo. 1 ». Spauld- 

Oooke. 


Master Study in 
New Standard Collection 


ir Violin, and 


New Standard Pour-Hand Collection. . . 

Orchestra Folio, Parts, each. 

Orchestra Folio, Plano Part. 

Arpeggio Studies, Book I, 


-nm M/ jury, Sullivan. 

The Village Blacksmith — Cantata, 


Commencement 

Needs 

The most important factor at. the close 
of the season’s study is the reward, mate¬ 
rial or otherwise, that the student receives. 
The glory of graduating with honors is 
_ much, but it should also be remembered 
that some material recognition gains much 
prestige for the teacher or institution. 
Suitable methods of doing this are sug¬ 
gested bv the listings below: 

Diploma Form (Parchment), slze,^ ^ 

This diploma is handsomely pro¬ 
duced with a lithographed design 
across head and worded as lllus- 

tration. _ .. ._ 

Diploma Form (Parchment), size, ^ 

*Same design as above without 
wording. 

Course of Study Certificate. - . .10 

Exactly as illustration—no de- 

Diploma Form, 21 x 16........... *15 

Good paper and elaborate de- 

Certificate of Award, 12x9...-- - 05 

Adaptable to any grade of 

Certificate of Award, 12 X 9 .. .-- •*<> 

Handsomely lithographed and 


Preparedness 

To some this may seem early to talk 
about music supplies for the season of 
1918-1919. Every year at this time we 
advise early ordering of next year s sup¬ 
plies and many thousands of our patrons 
have taken advantage of this suggestion in 
other years. 

There are many advantages to early 
ordering. During the slack summer season 
our Selection Department carefully con¬ 
siders such orders and fills them with 
more than usual carefulness. Orders re¬ 
ceived at the last minute are of course not 
on hand at the time the school or class 
begins its fall work, with consequent con¬ 
fusion and lack of satisfaction to all con¬ 
cerned. 

There is another reason this year far 
more imperative, viz.: slowness of trans¬ 
portation. At no time could this admoni¬ 
tion of “Order Early” be given with more 
force or with more reason. It would be 
•far belter to have an On Sale stock for the 
fall opening in one’s studio a few weeks 
early than a month late. 

Therefore, let every teacher and every 
school under whose eyes this notice falls, 
prepare by making a rough estimate of 
the number of pupils for next season and 
send us the usual stock order on both 
regular account and On Selection, merely 
giving us the date of delivery and we will 
fill the order at our convenience and have 
it in your studio on the date mentioned. 
The matter of billing will be arranged to 
suit the customer. Do not delay. Busi¬ 
ness conditions will be no worse in the fall. 
The history of Canada and other countries, 
even if the war continues, are that they 
will be better, so base the calculation as to 
possible needs on the present season. 


nanasomeiy > 

■orfied as illustration, 
cher’s Certificate, 1’ - 
For those who h 
teaching proficiency. 










Above is illustration mentioned. 

The prices given above do not include 
any lettering or filling in of pupils’ names 
or other matter of individual character, 
but the forms are so designed as to admit 
this being done by any engrosser at a 
small expense. 

We can also supply appropriately de¬ 
signed gold or silver medals costing $5.00 
and $3.00 each respectively. These make 
the best possible awards for graduates. 

Special awards of useful character are 
not amiss, such as leather music satchels, 
cloth bound volumes, musical literature 
books, busts of musicians, etc. We will lie 


Premium Workers 
Contest Awards 

The prize winners in the contest for 
Etude premium workers, based upon the 
greatest number of subscriptions sent us 
between January 1 and March 31, 1918, 
were as follows: 

1. John M. Williams, Calgary, Alta., 

Canada. „ ,. . _ 

2. Mrs. Aaron Eckert, Reading, Pa. 

3. Sisters of the Holy Name, Pomona, 

Cal i Mrs. S. H. Merrill, Fairmont, Minn. 

5 . Miss Jennie H. Many, Ridgbury, 
N Y 

’ 6. Frederick Mayer, Woodsville, Ohio. 

7. Sister Mary Eugratia, Butte, Mont. 

8. John Livesey, Buzby, Alta., Canada. 

9. Mrs. E. A. Ferbrache, Springfield, 

M 10. Miss Clara Romsos, Lowry, Minn. 

11. Mrs. R. E. Griswold, Cottage Grove, 

° r i2. Ursuline Sisters, Brunswick. Me. 

To the winner of the first prize, our 
check for $50, has been sent; to the winner 
of the second prize, $25; to the winner of 
the third prize, $10, and the other prizes as 
announced. A very slight effort on the 
part of any of the contestants named 
above would have put them very much 
higher on the list and earned for them a 
correspondingly larger share of prizes. It 
is to be regretted that so many Etude 
readers do not carefully read the printed 
matter sent them, as our announcement 
of the prize contest was overlooked by a 
great many. We are sure that some of 
our old premium workers, who have sent 
us many subscriptions in the past, could 
have easily come into the contest and car¬ 
ried off one of the larger prizes, had they 
noticed the announcement. Other contests 
will be announced in the future and we 


On Sale Returns 
And Settlement 

As the close of the Teaching Season of 
1917-1918 is near at hand, it seems timely 
to call the attention of our patrons to the 
annual settlement of ON SALE accounts 
which are due and expected during the 
summer months of each year. Early in 
June there will be mailed to all schools, 
conservatories and individuals having open 
accounts on our ledgers at that time, a 
complete statement. This will include the 
regular monthly charges, that is, the items 
(or supplies that have been purchased out¬ 
right, to be paid for monthly or quarterly 
and due at the present time, and ail items 
that have been sent out as ON SALE 
music also. With that statement will be 
found directions to follow when returning 
music and the settlement of the account. 
ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT 
DIRECTIONS IS THAT THE NAME 
AND ADDRESS OF THE SENDER 
MUST BE WRITTEN or STAMPED 
ON THE OUTSIDE OF EVERY 
PACKAGE RETURNED. 

This may seem an unnecessary warning 
to some of our patrons, but we receive 
hundreds of packages during the year with 
no name or address on the wrapper by 
which to identify the sender, and the dis¬ 
satisfaction to all parties concerned be¬ 
cause of such neglect can readily be 
imagined. The following general rules 
should be carefully read and adhered to: 

(1) Return prepaid all ON SALE music 
unused and not desired; a credit memo¬ 
randum for the value will be sent with a 
statement showing the correct balance due 
us. PLACE THE NAME AND AD¬ 
DRESS OF THE SENDER ON 
EVERY PACKAGE RETURNED. 

(2) IN RETURNING MUSIC large 
packages can he returned by freight, 
ordinary sized packages by express or 
mail, the rate by mail is two ounces for lc. 
up to four pounds, and then parcel post 
rates up to 50 pounds, or inside the first 
three zones, 70 pounds. Parcel post and 
express rates vary according to weight 
and distance. It would be best to obtain 
and compare both rates in order to get the 
advantage of the lower one. It is almost 
a rule, however, that any package weigh¬ 
ing 7 pounds or more coming from the 
fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh or eighth zones 
can be returned at less expense by express, 
using either the new regular or the printed 
matter rates of 8c per pound (minimum 

1S< (3) Use the gummed label which is en¬ 
closed with the statement, no matter by 
what method the returns are sent, and 
always write the name and address of the 
sender in the space provided on that 
gummed label. 

(4) ON SALE music received from us 
during the past season and of such char¬ 
acter as to be usable for the next season’s 
work may be retained under conditions 
arranged by special correspondence. This 
plan is suggested to save expense of trans¬ 
portation. 

(5) Music that has been specially or¬ 
dered and correctly filled is not to be 
returned, although mistakes are cheerfully 
rectified. Do not return music that is 
soiled or disfigured in any way whatsoever. 

(6) A credit for the return of music 
cannot be given unless the name and ad¬ 
dress of the sender is on the outside of 
every package returned to us. 


THE ETUDE Page 419 

Commencement 

Music 

Those who are still in need of music for 
Commencement must be served at once, 
even a day’s delay may prove fatal. 

Having always specialized in teaching 
material we have of course given much 
thought to the needs for the climax of 

a teacher’s season—Commencement—and 

our catalogue is rich in worthy material of 
■this class both vocal and instrumental. 

Voluntary words of praise on the merits 
of our ensemble publications have come 
to us from discriminating teachers, telling 
us of their satisfaction in having ordered 

This, of course, will give a confidence to 
those who have not as yet placed orders 
here and we particularly welcome such 
teachers, always confident that the service 
given our patrons will retain their busi- 


Summer 
New Music 

This notice is addressed partirnlarlv to 
those teachers and to those schools which 
will remain open and continue their teach¬ 
ing during the summer months. Many 
thousands of our patrons find it of great 
convenience to have a small package of 
new music sent to them once each month 
during the busy winter season months. 
From May to September we send out not 
more than three packages of either piano 
or vocal or both, of either about seven or 
fourteen pieces of new music to any of 
our patrons who desire it. Rate: our 
regular liberal discount; terms and settle¬ 
ment to be made at the convenience of the 
purchaser. A postal card will bring any 


We have an excellent. selection of mate¬ 
rial, Ensemble Piano, Vocal Solos or 
Duets, Choruses, etc., ready to send at a 
moment’s notice. 

It is not too late to take advantage of 
this stock and our prompt service. Order 
to-day, let us send you an order On Sale. 

Ordering Music 
By Mail 

It is worth while to note that in spite of 
somewhat disturbed traffic conditions the 
mail service has remained pructically as 
dependable as ever and while there are 
occasional delays, the average for prompt¬ 
ness stands near the top. We therefor do 
not hesitate to make our long established 
claim to be the quickest source of supply 
for any thing needed in the work of the 
music teacher. We not only fill orders 
quickly, but also completely, as our shelves 
are kept full in all lines of musical publi¬ 
cations. The Presser Catalog alone pro¬ 
vides ample choice for all requirements in 
music teaching; this catalog combined with 
a most complete stock of music of all pub¬ 
lishers may be depended upon to give the 
greatest degree of satisfaction for the 
smallest effort and at the least expense. 
Our terms to teachers and schools are 
positively liberal and except for minor 
changes in prices due to causes beyond our 
control are in all important respects the 
same as formerly. Our numerous patrons 
understand and appreciate the quality and 
character of our service and we have many 
frank testimonials to that effect, so we 
always welcome new customers because we 
know that they, too, will have no cause 
for disappointment if we can help it. 
Teachers not already acquainted with our 
business methods, as well as those who 
may wish to renew their relations with us, 
will get a ready welcome and a prompt 
response. 

Advance of Publication 
Offers Withdrawn 

The following works are withdrawn 
from the special advance of publication 
offer. The works can now be obtained at 
regular retail prices subject, of course, to 
professional rates and will be sent on in¬ 
spection to any who desire to examine 
them: 

Wohlfahrt, Op. 74, Books 1 and 2, Melo¬ 
dious Studies for the Violin. Price 50 
cents each. There has been considerable 
delay in the preparation of this work by 
reason of the careful editing, proof read¬ 
ing, etc., that has been given to it. Teach¬ 
ers will find this an excellent edition. 

Album of Descriptive Pieces for the ’ 
Piano. Price $1.00. This is a volume of 
program and recital pieces containing 29 
compositions, each descriptive of some 
scene or sound of nature and withal very 
musical. 

Pussy Willow and Other Nature Songs. 
By J. B. Grant. Price 75 cents. This col¬ 
lection of nature songs written especially 
for children, will be found very musical 


tor cnuctren, win oe iuuuu ..... — - 

and attractive. We can thoroughly recom- 








































































































Page m THE ETUDE 

Trial by Jury 
A Dramatic Cantata 
By Arthur Sullivan 

jn preparation a new edition of 
this celebrated short operetta. One of the 

c o 1 . ° f the earlier wor ks of 
^ Snlhvan, and it is especially 
suited for production by amateurs. The 

o„ThoV; r0d r U i Ct r f ° r tWs WOrk is “bout 
one hour. It has a cast requiring one 
soprano, two tenors, two baritones and a 
bass, together with a mixed chorus of 
bridesmaids, jurymen, spectators, etc. 
This is one of the most delightful of all 
works for performance by amateurs. It 
has been popular for many years Our 

aritlf'nosT-b! b t aS g 7 d and substan tial 
as it is possible to make it. For intro- 
ductory purposes we are offering copies 
postpaid^ 603 mte ° f 25 Cents P er 4y 

Scale and Arpeggio Studies 
for Violin, Book 1 
In the First Position 
By A. Blumenstengel 

tnJ hi ‘V- S U standard work in violin teach- 
which we are about to add to the 
Presser Collection. It is used by a ma- 
jonty °f teachers for daily studies. It 
consists of scales studies in all the major 

mafoT/iri ^ arP , eggi ° Studies in ab the 
major and minor keys, together with a 
variety of studies in bowing. Our new 
! d ! i°, n , of this work will be carefuUy 
a master violinist and it will be 
superior in all respects. Our special intro- 
ductory price for Volume 1 , in advance of 
pubbcBtion, will be 20 cents per copy post- 

Bohm Album 

in «Te nt g t0 f “”»»« that we will issue 
in the near future a Bohm Album in the 
Presser Collection. There is always a 

there" hi attractive pa rlor pieces^nd 

uiere is no parlor composer that has 

LangTfnri He is som ewhat above 

Lange and Lichner, and there is eonsider- 

Onh, ,T re V -' rility in his impositions. 

Only those pieces that have attained the 

coUection P ° PU arity WiU be included m this 

inJ h n e n V fi Ume W , i]1 , not be lon e in appear- 
on ,t be market as we have many of 
these plates already engraved, so that all 
uno intend to avail themselves of this 
special offer plan should lose no time in 
taking advantage of this special offer 
Our special advanced price for this volume 
is very low. There will not be a single 
piece in it which will not be worth more 
than the retail price of this volume post¬ 
paid. Send 35 cents and we will send you 
a copy of this work as soon as it is printed. 

Master Study In Music 
By James Francis Cooke 

A definite understanding of the prae- 
tical needs of the club organizer, the 
music-lover and the student who has com- 
pleted an elementary course in musical his¬ 
tory led the writer of this book to prepare 
this material for its special purpose. All 
of the notable figures in musical history 
have been treated to proper length,—this 
does not merely mean that Beethoven, 

Haydn, Mozart, Schumann, Tschaikowsky 
and other acknowledged masters,—but 
also voluminous information about such 
masters as Debussy, Saint-Saens, Gott- 
schalk, MacDowell, Strauss, Mason and in 
proportion Balakirev, Ravel, Schoenberg 
Galzounov, Godard, Mrs. Beach, Borodin,’ 

Bizet, Chaminade, Stravinsky, Reger, El¬ 
gar, Scott, Grainger, Rimsky-Korsakoff, 

. Taneiev and others, including a vast 
amount of material never brought to¬ 
gether in any similar collection. The book 
is preceded by an excellent review of 
musical history written by one of the 
world’s foremost authorities upon that 
subject. It is accompanied by questions, 
programs, notes on other books on allied 
subjects and is finely illustrated through¬ 
out. Notwithstanding numerous delays, 
work upon the volume is proceeding as 
rapidly as is consistent with thoroughness. 

The advance of publication price is fifty 
cents. 


Barter 


A DEPARTMENT WHERE OUR READERS 
MAY SELL, PURCHASE OR TRADE 
SECOND-HAND MUSICAL ARTICLES 


Terms and Conditions 

15 cents a word, 

the advertiser’s name and address 
included free 

No dealer advertisements accepted by 
this department. 

All advertisements must be genuine en¬ 
deavors to either sell, purchase or exchange 


for something else, used articles of real value 
such as musical instruments, books, music, 
studio furnishings, etc. We reserve the* 
right to reject advertisements which do not 
meet these requirements. 

Advertisements may appear over the ad¬ 
vertiser’s name or may be sent to this office 
and forwarded. 


Almost everyone knows the desire to sell trad* 

One person has gone into The Service and wants to disnoa^f** 0n } eth ! n .f 
mgs of his studio; another has a piano to trade toward ! the furnish- 
young teacher wants a second-hand music library for a vic5 n^’chorus ha^ 
g:ven an operetta or a cantata and has the used music for sale ‘ 

Your Insertion FREE 

If received by June 10th, 1918 

A J:T° dUCe thiS , department ’ We wiU P ubIish 1™ in the July or 
August Etude, every advertisement of twenty words or less whirl, r • 

* ">^°ns stated above and arrives at this office on o^oreJuT^L 
Where more than twenty words are used, the advertiser mnet 
regular rate, fifteen cents, for each extra word. P y he 


THE ETUDE :: PHILADELPHIA, PA. 


The Village 
Blacksmith 

Cantata for Mixed Voices 
By William H. Neidlinger 

This new cantata is almost entirely for 
chorus. There are just a few incidental 
solos lasting only a few measures each. 
Four part writing is used very largely, 
wdh a few instances of six part writing 
J 0rk ls extremely melodious and 

.etW nf 7 OUg n'7 U is the ver y be*t 
settm g of the well known poem by Long¬ 
fellow that we have seen. It may be per- 
mern't f eCt i Vel 7 with P iano accompani- 
£ 7>? rtS f °, r a SmaJ1 °«hert» may 
be had. The work is 24 navec in 
and the time of performance about *15 
minutes. Every choral conductor in search 

canttta 3 , ?K ng n °7 elt - y sbouId give this 
t/d/i thorough examination. For in- 

cnni7 7L ] ? UrpoSes we are offerin g single 
copies °f this work at the special price of 
20 cents each postpaid. * 

The Contemporary 
Organ Player 

This is a work which will not be con- 
i™ e , d , af ^ r tbe present edition is ex- 
ofTh/',/ c ? nslsts of a number of sheets 
- r] j compositions f rom the Vox 
Orgam edited by Dudley Buck, bound up 
into single volumes. In these volumes the 
very best composers are represented. This 
is an exceptional opportunity to acquire 
a desirable collection of organ pieces at 
an extremely low price. There will be 25 
U ? V0l T e ’ The P rice P" volume 

S P ° Stpald ' Tb ere will be two 
volumes, Nos. 1 and 2-Volume 2 contain- 
pf P 17 eS u y ^ Ud 'f y Buek > Wild, Werman, 
Bartlett, Frost, Shackley and Brewer,— 
ChlT\ 77, a ! nin S Pieces by Salome, 

wSs 


DeBeriot’s Standard Method 
for the Violin, Book I 

conrtant^use ta 

by violin teachers and pupils in many dif¬ 
ferent countries, and sives no cl™ I 011 
being superseded, as it combines^xcelllnt 
d P rous g n°efs C *** ^ -fo- 

It has been published in many different 
editions and with text in several different 
h3Ve e . ndeav °red to make 
w edition superior to any other bv 

SfryS-saasifta 

fahrts Melodious Studies, Ov 7A(ri 

New Standard Collection 
for Violin and Piano 

re^v S i ne r7 0llecti on is also very nearly 
will be conr SP a da i introductory offer 
wiu be continued during the current 

lection ™ S . iS , a Sple " did aP -ou™ 
manv more I '" i nd piano ’ containing 
many more pieces than one usually finds 
in collections of this nature. It is printed 
from special large plates with a separate 
violin part. Modern, contemporary and 
classic composers are represented. 7 The 

cultT Tt'if - Ch l efly e f in t erm ediate diffi 
cu!ty. It is just such a book as any stn- 
de "t wdl b e glad to have. The special 

nn dU os 0ry pHce in ad ^nce of publica¬ 
tion is 25 cents postpaid. 1 


JUNE 1918 

Child’s Own Book of Great 
Musicians. Richard Wagner 

This new book, in Mr. Tanner’s • . 
esting series for very little children • 
of the brightest in the series. Given » ° ne 
of scissors, a pot of paste and the hi„ ? ait 
of illustrations whi!h come for th f h? 
any child under ten years of age can 5 k 

®)“P le 1 a n guage 0g The y little "pupM™^' 

sheets together, makingTneveMoTe 

gotten souvenir. If you desire 7 / 
this book as soon as /comesTut / T 
be glad to put your name down for a con! 
on receipt of ten cents. The books alrT 
out are Bach, Mozart, Schubert, Mendel/ 
sohn, Schumann, Handel, Haydn, Be ' 
hoven and Chopin. These now on,, ,' 
cents apiece and are greatly in demand. 


New Standard 
Four Hand Collection 

This new volume is now nearly »„ a 

but the special introductory offer 
eT!r d T ing the Curren ' t uionth / 

collection belongs in the series of standard 
collections printed from specialT 
piates. It contains a very large numbed 
duets both original and arran|eme™ts and 
it will prove suitable for practice ;/" 
semble playing, for sight reading and for" 
home recreation. Many of the pifees bcin! 
suitable also for recital use. Both mo/ 8 
and standard composers are rep™" 
in goodly proportion. This will prove on! 

J >eS L four - band eollectfons evw 
published. The special introductory price 
m advance of publication is 25 cents posh 

New Orchestra 
Folio 

The New Orchestra Folio is still in 
undert / P r' ,aration ' p is quTte a” 
donelsTfb i T a Work of tbis kind 
7 sbould be ~ so well that no one 
T! bf dl s a PPointed. So it will take a 
little time to get the books on the market 
but they will be worth waiting fc/Te 
pieces in this series are selected from our 
thfn u [) 7 r,gbts and will not include any- 
oT?/ lt ! ert ° I )ublis,led i" any collecti 
of orchestra music. They will be playable 
and / C ? rnbmatlon add ed to a first violin 
advine pian ° part. Until publication the 

cents oXT 1 P K HC f are: Piano ^ 25 
cents, orchestra books, each 15 cents. 

Lost, a Comet—Operetta 
By George L. Spaulding 

DaTin S pf Uldil \ g ’ S ? revious operettas, “A 
and "/! 0 , Werd, : m ’ “ The IsIe of •!cwels” 
nrnven 7 er , G °° Se Island ’” ba ^ a U 

P tTTtT/ e y popular - Th « new oper- 
prove eaS L ° St ’ A Com et,” should 

It k vXT as successful as the others, 
the f, / "T throughout, many of 
nWed T 7 odern rhythms being em- 
vi/ hnT the , d i al °P J e and verses are 
learned Td m patcbeS - The work is easily 
T„ „f d may be Performed by any 
The yo . llr ’g folks with great success, 
of n lT lnt roductory prke in advance 

««°rSp33. ! ° per '“*" 2S 

The Volunteer Choir 

offIr h d„T U T, WlU be eontinued on special 
addition ? g the current month. It is a new 
anthem t0 „°". r . vei T successful series of 
! collections published during a 

of whief, . ^years, all the separate numbers 
lar Pr ° ven wonderfully popu- 

will he S new collection the anthems 
throned/* y ° r , ° f a moderate difSculty 
leaZd h ’ such anthems as might be 
rned by any chorus choir with a few 
men//nth WiU be a goo/j ^sort 

^nthemcT -° f hymn anthems and of 
modern S T' ng scri Pt«ral text. The best 
TnrTnte/ 7 nt emporary writers are 
represented such as: J Truman Wolcott, 

BlounTT R M - Stnltz, Charles B 
and othere S / IOSmer .’ Jobn Spencer Camp 
for this neeTi specia l introductory price 
paid V ° Ume wiU be 15 «nts post- 


ady about the 
delivered, and 


JUNE 1918, 

Mozart Album 

This volume will be 
lime that the next issue is ucu.oiu, 
e will therefore retain it on the advanced 
V „ r i ce for one more month. The book 
k entirely complete and ready to be sent 
to the printer. It will contain the choicest 
miscellaneous compositions of Mozart. It 
% be both an entertaining and instruc- 
Uve volume and extreme grades will be 
“voided. None of the selections in this 
volume will contain any more difficult 
nieces than can be found in one of his 
sonatas. Our special advanced price is 35 
cents postpaid. 

Special Offer 

for Etude Renewals 

Our special renewal offers have been so 
favorably received, and so many thousands 
of our subscribers have taken advantage 
nf them, to obtain standard music collec¬ 
ts for a very small sum in addition to 
the yearly subscription price of The 
Etcbe, that we have decided to make the 
offer again, good for the month of June 
only. This is the offer: 

Every reader of The Etude, who will 
renew his or her subscription, or send us a 
new subscription during the month of 
June, may add 15c. to the price, making it 
$1.65 in‘all ($1.90) Canada), and take 
their choice of: , , 

Album of Lyric Pieces for the Piano. 
26 pieces. 

Handel Album. 

Modern Dance Album. 18 Pieces. 
Favorite Compositions. Kngelmann. 

You and I. Four Hand Album. Geo L. 

^Standard Vocal Album. 80 Songs, 

medium voice. 

This is a real bargain offer, and Etude 
readers should not only take advantage of 
it in renewing their own subscriptions, but 
show it to their friends and urge upon 
them the advantages of subscribing for 
The Etude. Whether your subscription 
has expired or not, the renewal orders re¬ 
ceived during the month of June, at $1.65, 
entitle you to take advantage of this 
special offer. 


Album of Piano Pieces 
By Women Composers 

This unique volume is almost ready for 
the printer and the present month will see 
the last opportunity to subscribe for it at 
the reduced rate. 

It is remarkable what strides women 
have made in the field of composition. 
This volume will bear tribute to their at¬ 
tainments in this line. It will contain 
pieces that are within the range of the 
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WHEN SCHOOL’S OUT 


15307 Venelitn Boat Song 

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I Scout’s 1- 

1 A Lively Walt 

Exceptional o 
a higb-clas 
of characl 




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Cat. No. 

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15169 Yanla 


HATCH FREDERIC L. 


Cat. No. 

CLARK HORACE 
15299 Romanzetta 
15298 Sonatina in C Major. 

D1GGLE ROLAND 
15419 At Sunrise. 


FELTON W. 
15255 The Band Ma 
14679 Cytherea. . 
15254 In Court Drea 
15253 In Slumber. 


M. 


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15316 On and On. 3 

MORA CARLO 

15043 Dream of the Rosea . * 

MORRISON R. S. 

15323 Her Letter J 

15325 The Reveille . 3 

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15322 American Indian Rhapsody. 

A genuine^Indian" themes furnished by 


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15171 At Twilight. 

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14925 Danse Noryegienne No. 3 
W1DENER STANLEY F. 
15257 Reflections 


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MARTIN GEO. DUDLEY 
15317 On and On 1 

SCOTT JOHN PR1NDLE 
15327 Top O’ the Mornin’ . 3 •«' 

PIANO—SIX HANDS 

SPAULDING GEO. L. 

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15361 Little Camp-Fire Girla^ ^ * 

bl'su/’nrf'/.*Tuneful and weU- 

TWO PIANOS—FOUR HANDS 


VIOLIN AND PIANO 


'ranscribed (Arthur 


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DIGGLE ROLAND 




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MORRISON R. S. 

15252 Triumphal March 

NEV1N GORDON BALCH 
15282 Warum? (R. Schumann) 

15360 Cantilena (G. Goltermann) 


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15352 Legend of Wicklow 3 

RIMSKY-KORSAKOW N. 

15243 Chanson Indoue ,■ * 

Carefully edited and with new and 
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TATE ARTHUR F. 

15320 The Dream River 3 


THEO. PRESSER CO., PHILADELPHIA, PA. 


VOCAL DUETS 

































































































































Page m THE ETUDE 

“What Judy Judge Did” 

By Jo-Shipley Watson 

Tinker Tom is an idle fellow who lives 
close^ under the white keys of Mary 
Anne’s piano. He chuckles and shuffles 
along with her when she feels lazy and 
doesn’t want to practice. He leers up 


c 


Junior Etude — Continued. 

The Talkative Notes 


It all happened in the middle of the 
night—so many, many things do happen 
in the middle of the night, do they 


- — itc jeers up +u 0 • i ,, 

through the cracks of the keyboard when n ° - ' . 

she says: “Oh, I can’t play that I” He ^ ‘ P a< ;!’ most peo P le b ed and 

winks knowingly when sh" cuts her prac- " ^ ^ ^ ° f ** 

tice penod. He laughs rudely at the les¬ 
son when she stumbles through a bad half 


-~ tu .aac U1C UI ltsetl, SC 

U IS no wonder that lots of things happen; care tor ver y high ledgei 
and it was in the middle of the night that tbe Y make me.rather dizzy 
the notes came tnopt-hpr m t_.„ . im... “R.. ......• 


- - a uaa nan — came together to have a little 

Hour. He embraces her fondly when she cha ‘> and to tell each other about their 
gives up and mopes, for Tinker Tom loves tna s and tribul ations. 


—-- uci lunuiy w 

gives up and mopes, for Tinker Tc 
an indifferent student. 

Now Sloppy Sam is' Tinker Tom’s first 
cousin. He slides along the music page 
and seems most cheerful when Mary 
Anne uses the wrong finger or forgets 
the rests. “Oh, that’s right,” says Sloppy 
Sane Just bluff along; rests are noth- 
Jtn ? le ’ jangle! One, two, three! 
t a T Player T sh f is! ” cri « Sloppy Sam. 

Now Judy Judge never liked these 
good-for-nothing cousins, and one day 
she decided to visit Mary Anne’s house, 

ho !t e S j art u d ° Ut With a bi S S( l uare 
board under her arm and in her bag she 
carried a hammer and a box of tacks. 
Judy Judge was a very determined per- 
f. n ’\? be never jessed at things and she 
™;lA eeln ? 15 be , Heving '” wbich m music 
m^ght be changed to “Hearing is believ- 

i "^ 0 4 * begin ! ” she sb °uted to the as¬ 
tounded Mary Anne, as she laid the board 
on the floor and pulled out the hammer 
and paper of tacks. Bang! Bang! “For 
every mistake I put in a tack.” Bane-! 


I prefer the spaces to the lines, my¬ 
self,” said Half-note. 

“Do you ?’’ asked Quarter-note, “I have 
no choice, anything suits me. I do not 
care for very high ledger lines, though; 

up there in the 


Whole-note frowned a sad frown. He 
was quite provoked, and seemed to be 
very much annoyed about something. 

What on earth shall I do about it?” 
he pouted, as he settled himself com- 
b ° r tably on the second space of the staff. 

What shall I do about it!” “About 
what?" asked Half-note, as he settled 
himself next to Whole-note, right in the 
same measure. 

“Move over,” scolded Whole-note, “you 
are too close I must have this measure 
all to myself. 


‘By the way, who „ 
ledger line department ; 


the r 


“I think there are two Eighths there,” 
answered Quarter-note, “let us call them 
down;” and the Eighth-notes heard the 
conversation,- and came down. 

“Why are you sitting up on the mez¬ 
zanine floor to-night?” Half-note asked 
them. 

“Well, no particular reason,” they an¬ 
swered, “we are out of the dust up there, 
for one thing,” and as they spoke another 
quarter-note joined them. 

“Full house,” said Half-note “V™ 
will have to find a seat in the r 




“Indeed!” exclaimed Half-note, “can 
I not sit beside you for a moment? You 
know there is no one around to count 
one-and-two-and’ now, so we can sit in 
any measure we choose.’* 

“Yes, I know we can,” agreed Whole- 
note. 'but move over, anyway. I am 
tired to-night.” 

“So I notice," said Half-note, “and 
also cross, but cheer up—you have noth- 
tng to do till to-morrow.” 

“That is true,” said Whole-note, “but 
see your , to ~ morr ° w will begin again—‘one-and- 
em ” tW fi ° ' and ‘ tbree ' and * four - and - third 


full. 


This is a 4/4 measure, and i 


him come in ’” said Quarter- 
note. I just heard you say that there is 
no one here to count us now/* 

, “AU right, come in,” said Half-note 
light ” SOme ° ne mUSt m ° Ve before day ' 
n “ r , wi11 move presently, myself,” said 

uZ TT e - THere are SOme 3/4 meas¬ 
ures on the next page, and I want to run 

light ” th6re f ° r E moment before day- 

,«e - „ ri „ . , . 

and - two - and - don’t - forged -°the - ^uoidto°^refctfy counted, to-day. It is so 
dotted - note.’ Oh, it is he same thW ,n P - Slt up there on those ledger lines 

:x - 

do not tad it ,„ch. bore” before „„ It certain), is liresome, 

“What i. taoh a bore?” a.ked 0 «art„. J„ t ttl/b“7 


JUNE 1918 

High Chairs and Low Chairs 

It is annoying to find the piano stool 
too high, or too low, is it not? Particu¬ 
larly when it is a bench or chair that is 
r.on-adjustable! 

Not long ago, a pupil was playing at a 
student’s concert, and the chair was too 
high for her. If it had been too low she 
could have put a book on it (lots of peo¬ 
ple do that, you know), but this time it 
was too high, and what could she do? 
There was no other chair on the stage, 
so she had to use it. 

Of course it upset her, and she did not 
play quite as well as she might have 
played. She did very well, though, be¬ 
cause she made up her mind before the 
concert that she would play well, and that 
nothing should interfere. 

After a few weeks she was asked to 
play at another concert. “This time I 
will be prepared for any emergency,” she 
said to herself; and what do you think 
she did? 

The day before the concert she screwed 
her stool up until it was very high—en¬ 
tirely too high, in fact-and played her 
piece through with it that way. Then 
she screwed it down as low as it would 
go—entirely too low, of course—and 
played her piece on the low stool. 

“Now,” she said to herself, “I do n.ot 
care what kind of a chair I have at the 
concert. I will play well, even if I have 
to stand.” 

Try this some time. You never know 
when you might be asked to play on a 
strange piano, and the stool might not 
suit you at all. So just try it. It is 
always well to be prepared, you know. 


Technic 


“Like this,” said Judy Judge as she held 
up the board. “It is good to see your 
mistakes if you can’t hear them,” and 
Judy Judge gave another whack of the 
hammer. “Now look!” Judy Judge com¬ 
manded, and Mary Anne turned around 
with a beating heart. She had never 
cared much about mistakes, but now she 
cared so much that she dared not look 
for fear of crying. The board was full 
of tacks; each one meant a blunder of 
some sort. Goodness knows, Mary Anne 
never dreamed there could have been 
so many! 

“To-morrow I will come again,” said 
Judy Judge. “I will pull out a tack 
for every mistake you correct.” 

“Oh!” said Mary Anne, “I’m so 
glad, and I will try to do better every 
day until they are all pulled out.” 

Then it was that Tom Tinker and 
Sloppy Sam slipped from sight and 
were never seen in that music room 
again, and Judy Judge still comes and 
pulls out tacks and Mary Anne is 
happy to see the number grow less and 

'°Now a warning to you: Tinker Tom "^mS ^ 

and Sloppy Sam are roaming about look- M ° ve scolded Whole-note. “I “ D Ta r me ■’ exC a n" lesSOn ' 

ing for a home,—don't let them in! must have this measure all to myself.” must not be Uni Quarter mote, “I 

“Oh. excuse me,” said Quarter-note n >■ , Ugbt , m the wron S measure, 

who always tried to be reeable ner ' n0te ’ S.! . 

On a Volunteer Singer fin , c °™ e ’ . Half - note >” be said, “ we will they belonged and were 0S1 k " bere 

,. c , , " nd seats in the next measure” and thpv nn fLo r ’ d " ere patiently sitting 

Swans sing before they die:-twere no left Whole-note. “Come on,” he con tinned ‘ hn ? and spaces - and listening to 

bad thing, “these are 4/4 measures and ft, • ’ , ne and - two - and - three - and - 

Should certain persons die before they plenty of room for us both with ? f ° Ur ' and . ' don,t ' for S et * the - whole - 

Sing! spare,” and they settled themselves on^he an!? ~ cT™* ’ a ' little “ bi & ber - one - 

““”1 next « “ J 0 „r Z ” 



—S. T. Coleridge. 


Technic ! What do you think of when 
you say technic? 

Do you think of weary exerdses and 

yards and yards of scales and countless 
pages of etudes? 

Do you think of sore finger tips and 
strained muscles and the relentless tick 
of the metronome? 

a 0 '' ‘f hnic is not the thing of dry 
and endless dullness that you imagine; 
it is rather the channel—deep and wide, 
narrow and shallow, crooked or straight 
that each one must dig in order that 

find a wa Watel t S ° f ° Ur imagination 
The sturdy workman comes down the 
street with pick and spade, and begins 

and V ^^1 \ ftCr day We See bim tbere - 
and by and by we see a ditch of the 
same width and depth going down our 
street in a straight line; then he comes 
to lay pipes which are to carry the pure 
fresh water to the people of the back 
country. 

Now, that is the way I like to think 
of technic. We are the sturdy work¬ 
men, with our fingers and minds we 
dig patiently day after day, and by and 
by the channel of technic is made, and 
beautiful melody flows to those who 
ove good music. The one great point 
is to make the channel straight and of 
the same depth and width ; I have seen lit¬ 
tle boys and girls who have dug at random, 
here, there and everywhere. Some little 
students like curved channels, some like 
crooked ones, some say they “Don’t see 
any use of channels at all”; but you 
see there is a use for channels: without 
mem our imaginations would find no 
way out. Let us shoulder our spades 
and picks and dig the wav. straight and 
wide and deep, so that the pure fresh 
waters of melody may flow to the peo¬ 
ple of all countries.—J. S. W, 


THE ETUDE Tage JfiS 


JUNE 1918 


~ - - 

sSxiTTTlTl^T Schools <2- 


Combs Conservatory 

Philadelphia 

a SCHOOL OF INDIVIDUAL INSTRUCTION, THIRTY-THIRD YEAR 

(Theoretical and Applied Branehe. Taught Privately and in Claa.ea) 

All branches. Normal Training Course for Teachers t Pub ^.,®, ch | pb M" S n y 
Supervision. Four Pupils’ Recitals a week. Two Complete Pupils bjropho y 
Orchestras. Reciprocal relations' #ith;University of Pennsylvania. 

Faculn'^Gilber^Rayu^da^Contba^Piano^^HeiirySchradieck^ Violinj^Hugh^A.^Clarjt^^v** P ^j(^t*e r /cherT, man 

SUMMER SCHOOL 

The courses in the Summer School are C^et^tKe^eeds 

solve individual problems , un J; v jJ e d attention 

The instruction is individual and private in order that unoivioc 

not obtainable elsewhere for a complete musical education. 

FIVE SPACIOUS BUILDINGS 
The only Conservatory In the Slate with Dormitories for Women. 

A School of Inspiration, Enthusiasm, Loyalty and Success. 

Illustrated Year Book Free 

GILBERT RAYNOLDS COMBS, Director offic B; 0 fd u 


d Reed Stre 



dunning“system 


_ for Beginners 

“1“ cu!^ IK* »”> »“ 

a Year with the Dunning Work Alone—Why « This . 

Because it. at.nd.rd hs. "'^[^^.^rfolierchtrA^™"" 

MRS. CARRE LOUISE DUNNING NORMAL CUSS FOR TEACHERS, New York City. Normal 

M C ‘r ‘- 

M? d8 0 6 cnr L E OU k'ur y ; Norma. Cl..., Shreveport. La., Dec. 3d, 1917. W.ahington. D C., duly 

Mra^'nn^Cra^g B^tea^Norfwd'cUaae^e^iA^ma^* 7thA9l8* ^^Vddress Uu*A^Temple,"D”'la*, 

Mrs. Harriet Bacon MacDonald, Normal Class, Jan 


Peabody Conservatory 


BALTIMORE, MD 

HAROLD RANDOLPH, Director 

Summer Session S.“!£ 

— Btid ‘Tv.ThI’ST ctSUb, 

gffiS'SiL Mjn- 

cr.dk. in certairT‘branches may be offered for th« B. S. degree 

Practice Pianos and Organs Available 

, FREDERICK. R. HUBER, Manager 

Circulars Mailed . j 

Arrangements for classes now being made 

Chicago Musical College 

LEOPOLD AUER,TcinnTnc H sot.Ts“ ■< *. »-«'• «■““ 

SUMMER SCHOOL 

JUNE 24th to AUGUST 3d. 7 SIX WEEKS) _ 

HERBERT WITHERSPOON OSCAR SAENGER^ 

Noted Singer, Coach and Vocal World-reinowm<=« oac h 


RUDOLPH REUTER^ ^ ^ Tea 

ALEXANDER RAAB 

Dietinguiehed Pianist and Tea 
HAROLD von M1CKWITZ 
H Well-known Piani, 


LEON SAMETJNI med ^ Telcher 

FELIX BOROWSKI , f Th 

Noted Critic. Composer and Teacher ot 1 neory 
LOUIS VICTOR SAAR 
Well-known Composer and Teacher ot 1 heory 


CJl of Opera. Orcheetral Instrument. Espression &horl of Acting.^^ N°rm,^^^^ m [i _ 

°" ” qU “ t ‘ Pr ° AU " 

W ‘ 1 CARL t D?'k Tn'^I Vi. 

FELIX BOROWSKI, Pr 


Partial Scholarships to be Awarded ot OpeningofFeHTern 


Mia. Nettie Beth Daria, Normal Class, Whit. 

Mies Clara Sabin Winters, Normal Classes, A 
Wichita, Kan. 

Mr*. Carrie Munger Long, Normal Classes, 

7th St., Ft. Worth, T.xae^ Apri , 27th ,„dju 


Mrs. Jeanette a. rimer, norm. 

Addreee 50 Erion Crescent, Rocne.it. , "■ ■ ■ ,, 

Mrs, Wesley Porter Mason, Normal Claeses, Dallas, 
20. 1918. Address 5011 Worth Street, Dallas, Tesas. 
Mrs. Alice Hawley Scothorn, Normal Class, Boston, J 
MU°.‘Ma^y M E a8 Breckhisen, Normal C'— Anril 2d and 
359 Irving St., Toledo, Ohio. 

Mrs. Harry A. Prentice, Normal CL 
”— v -rk City. 


Full In 


id booklet 




, College of Musi, 
5th, 1918, Birmingham, Ala. Address 812 
30th, 1918. Rochester, N. V 
, April 20th i Denver, Colo., Jun 
1, 1918. Address P. O. Bo* 3369, 
L7th, 1918 , Toledo, Ohio. Address 
York City, June 28th. Address 78 W. 103d St¬ 
an endorsers. 8 West 40th St., New York City 


HAVE YOU EVER BEEN REFUSED A POSITION BECAUSE YOU LACKED 

EXPERIENCE 

THE BROOKFIELD SUMMER SCWXUmf. gg^vWS!S’*' 


I,——i 

DORMITORY F OR la DIE S found anywhere> but It 
| The L. C. M. has the reputation of providing the b«t PubUe YndiVidual attention In every department. 

I Us Will be a Profitable Onefo^Y o. ^ 

I FREDERIC A. COWLES, Director — 


'BLJStTcONSER VA TORY 

G# ^ * * EDOAR A. NELSON, As.oc. Dlrsctor 

Summer School- Five Weeks—June 24 th to July 27 th 
summer opEN THROU qhout entire year 

EDWARD H. SCHWENKER, Secretary, 800 North Clark St. , Chicago, 









































































































































Page 424 




Page 424 


s Summer 5chool 


WEEKS' INTENSIVE VOCAL STUDY 

DAILY LESSONS: Save on Board and Lodging. VOK^E RW^RTOWE: .HJLYl-20 

Private Lessons. gl, s ". ~ 

Specialty: Ease of Production oUat 


erratic . —;.v„„al Clast 
Lamperti - Sembrich Method TeaC, " ni 


,I ; S; FREDERICK wr wODELL 

W7 Pierce Bid,, Cople, Bo.ton, Mars. 




A AT ATI T*w ~ ' 7 CESS0R T0 ™ E LATE Lit 

ANNUAL TEACHER’S COURSE 

Six Weeks J u l y / to August 10 

Roy David Brown SUIT lu 9 ,° L ^ 6 G L ^tr- H o EALY 


THE MART WOOD CHASE SCHOOL OF MUSIC A l aptc 

“fssissiPSr 


- INro,M,T ' 0 ” Z'Zo ,u. 


|VCEU/V\ 

Huts 

QoMS ER.VATOR.Y 

(INCORPORATED) 


a11 branc hes of music and dra 
PI I A « a ^A C s? n ^ anieS organized and coached, 

323? r ci / courees 

t S o?r 8 e e n \ Stt?SS5 Ste 

catalog. Address Registrar^Frank A. M™gMM„ 

Dept r 600.61 n . _ _ Kan * Mgr * 


Allen Spencer 


the well-known Pianist and Teacher, of 
Chicago will accept a limited number 
of pupils m advanced Technic and 
Interpretation, at his summer home 

atVyequetonsing,Mich.,(nearPetoskey) 

during July and August. 


For information, address 

ALLEN SPENCER 

American Conservatory 
Kimball Bldg. Chicago, III. 


THE STANDARD 
SUMMER NORMAL 


omplete and practical 


course i o r progressive 

= TEACHERS = 

HAHN MUSIC SCHOOL 

3919-S. Junius St., DALLAS, TEXAS 


Skidmore School of Arts 


Summer Session, July 1 to August 9 

Summer School of Music 


‘SNYDER 


nfrir t* CU ! ty i r h ,T rwoo £ Music School, Chicago- 
* #? s, “ Co lcgc Decalac, 111.; Organist and 

an7sh r JZ da ' eU r n ChU . rCh: ^ofUschetuky 


Music Teachers and Students 

ATTENTION! 


g, Special Course in PiaL 
Playing for the Summer Term, June 
in Pipe Organ Playing. 


Sherwood Music School 


Founded 189S by WiUiar 

10 Branches! 


i S. Sherwood 
12,000 Pupils! 

Special Summer Session 

From July 8 to August 17 
at Main School in Chicago 
Special Courses in All Subjects! 
Special Terms! Special Free Recitals! 




Address SHERWOOD MUSIC SCHOOL 

300 Fine Art* 


Dudley Buck 


Teacher of Singing 

Announces a 

Special Summer Course 


June 1st to September 1st 

address 

50 West 67th Street, New York City 


SARATOGA SPRINGS, NEW YORK 


S H E P A IT) 

PIANO SYSTEM 

SUMMER SESSION—JULY AND AUGUST 
FOR TEACHERS AND PERFORMERS 

Buck Hill Falls. Pennsylvania-a delightful 


SHEPARD SCHOOL OF MUSIC,“oRANCE, N. J. 


Music leaches most exquisitely the 
art of development. D'lSRAELI. 


Music-Education 

Summer Normal 


Calvin B. Cady, Principal 


LOS ANGELES, California, June 24 to July 
===== 30 (The Cumnock School) 


SEATTLE, Washington, July 29 to August 
=•30 (Cornish School of Music) 


Delightful places for an outing and study 
Music- Education is far more than “a 
method" or “a system,” because it is con¬ 
cerned with principles and processes of 
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